Browsing: what is labor day

The History of Leisure and Recreation

When you stop to think about it, humankind has always enjoyed some type of leisure and recreation, so the history of leisure and recreation goes back a very long way. The Romans had the Coliseum, where they watched chariot races and other entertainment. The Greeks had amphitheaters where they viewed drama and comedy, and of course they invented the Olympics, one of the greatest entertainment sport spectacles on earth. The list goes on. Even the Bible discusses singing, dancing, music, and other forms of acceptable recreation, so even the most ancient civilizations enjoyed entertainment and recreation of some sort.

The Middle Ages

Life for most people in the Middle Ages was dark and difficult. More emphasis was put on work, and there was little time for leisure. However, jousting tournaments, hunting tournaments, and the earliest forms of chess, checkers, and other games developed during this time. The people worked hard, the Church forbade many forms of entertainment, but there were still leisure pastimes to help develop the growing history of leisure and recreation.

The Industrial Revolution

This history of leisure and recreation goes far back in time, but leisure and recreation really took off when the Industrial Revolution hit Great Britain in the 1700s. The Industrial Revolution revolutionized work in the modern world, and helped create the modern factory environment. Machines mechanized the manufacture of fabric and fibers, and this ultimately led to more leisure time for the workers. They worked long hours in the factories, but they also had time off, and most employers gave at least some holidays off. Thus, people who had labored from dawn to dusk on farms in rural England, moved to the big city, got jobs in factories, and had leisure time away from their jobs. The Industrial Revolution helped create the notion of leisure time, and it helped create a different view of work and leisure.

The 20th Century

If the Industrial Revolution helped create the history of leisure and recreation, the 20th century helped cement it. Workers demanded shorter working hours, paid vacations and holidays, and weekends off, leading to even more leisure time for the world’s workforce. Today, work and leisure are still strictly separated, but leisure time and recreation are some of the most important aspect of modern life, showing how the history of leisure and recreation has altered throughout time, and become increasingly popular as people gain more freedom from work and toil.

Tribal Warfare

It’s interesting to note that the wide separation between work and leisure in our modern society is something that wasn’t necessary in early, tribal cultures. Early man (and woman), worked when it was necessary to find food or to create items they needed to live, but they did not work continually, they interspersed work with pleasure or leisure, something our society not longer enjoys. For example, in Native American societies, boys “played” at war and warfare, but this play taught them how to use a bow and arrow, useful for hunting as well as defending the tribe. Work became play, while today, the two terms are decidedly distinct.



Source by Gary Pearson

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Loving People Well With Boundaries

I wasn’t in paid ministry very long – first day, in fact – before my then senior pastor gave me a salient lesson on boundaries. It would be a lesson I was destined to learn the hard way.

Not that all lessons learned the hard way are the wrong way to learn. Easy way or hard, the main thing is that we do learn – God is gracious to this end. But I diverge.

Some people reminded me strongly, early on, who I was there to serve: them! I took it on advisement but contrasted this with the wise counsel of my senior pastor. I saw a need of balance – that there were vital truths to be learned and established and implemented in remaining true to both imperatives.

I was there as a pastor for people. And in being there for people, I found I could do them a disservice in trying too hard to help, or being too available, or being too willing to facilitate a solution, or just in being too plain nice.

Then I remembered something I learned in a secular Stephen Covey (Franklin-Covey) course I attended for my professional development way back in 2007. Don’t be too accessible; even by delaying response to some requests a few hours teaches people to be resourceful. Or words to that effect. In my secular work as a safety advisor (really more a chaplain role) I found it incredibly powerful for people when I didn’t get back to them immediately. They sorted their own problems out. They got resourceful. And I don’t know how many people got back to me and said, ‘Oh, it’s no worries, I did [this or that] and sorted it myself… thanks for getting back to me, though.’ Great result! I found it a marvellous freedom not being needed. I felt safe enough in my role without any further validation.

Many of us get a great deal of pleasure out of serving people. We like to serve as a way of loving them. God blesses us as we are a blessing. But there’s a fine line between helping and proving, for God’s service, a hindrance – to His Spirit’s power in their lives for growth. Too many of us have rescued people when it would have been better for them to be left to work it out or be given a little support but not too much.

We are responsible to people, but never are we responsible for people. There is a significant nuance of difference in this concept. In serving people we already take our role seriously. We do not need to give them what they think they need. We’re responsible for what we discern God believes they need.

How do we tell the difference? Well, we let them fight their own battles. How will they draw on their own resources otherwise? We may assist them devise their plans, we may pray, and we may even give them advice, but we’re loath to do it for them! If we did, they may learn nothing, and worse, it could complicate the dynamics of conflict already at play.

It can be a privilege to love people through serving them, and where most of our encouragement ought to come is through seeing the Holy Spirit work in them. Not through solutions procured in our strength or theirs.

We love people best when we serve them without rescuing them.

Rescuing people from what they might experience deprives them of what they might learn.



Source by Steve Wickham

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Mammography: A Very Brief History

Breast cancer isn’t new, but the means we use to detect and study it are. Mammography, the science used to examine the breast, only began to develop its roots in the last century. Since then, the means and methods of detecting cancerous tumors have only kept changing.

It wasn’t until 1895 that x-rays were developed. In 1913, a German surgeon by the name of Alfred Salomon became the first person to try and visualize breast cancer through the use of radiology. Salomon used what was the era’s conventional x-ray machine to look over specimens from more than 3,000 mastectomies that he had performed. From this, he was able to get a better understanding of what was or wasn’t normal in breast tissue, thus establishing himself as the father of modern mammography. Salomon’s research, however, was only the beginning of the field’s development.

In 1930, Dr. Stafford L. Warren provided a breakthrough in the field. Stafford’s research supported the effectiveness of mammography as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer and further developed a stereoscopic technique for the field. Warren’s research further found that a side by side comparison of the left and right breasts could do even more to detect abnormalities, making diagnosing the disease even simpler. In 1949, Uruguayan doctor Raul Leborgne developed the compression method. A radiologist by trade, Leborgne invented a device that held the breast flat between a cone and pad while an x-ray was taken. This method allowed the x-ray to produce a better quality image overall, making the diagnosis process simpler and more accurate. Furthermore, Leborgne was the first to suggest looking for micro calcification in the breast, which refers to the appearance of small white dots that may be an early indicator of cancer developing.

The next big break in mammography came in the late 1950s, when Houston radiologist Robert Egan introduced the use of a fine-grained screen and industrial film to produce clearer images. With his team at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Egan examined images from the breasts of 1,000 women who weren’t displaying any obvious signs of cancer. Through closer examination, Egan and the other researchers found 238 cancerous masses among the results.

Mammograms became commonly accepted as a means of breast cancer detection in the 1960s, and a study conducted from 1963-1966 found that they were able to reduce deaths from breast cancer by a third. A high-definition screen developed in 1972 provided x-ray technicians with much sharper images. Twenty years later, Congress enacted the Mammography Quality Standards Act, ensuring that all women could access proper breast cancer care whenever necessary.

The field has continued to grow. As recently as last year, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a study that found 3D technology excelled at finding cancer over the traditional mammogram. It’s tough to say what the coming years will bring, but it’s almost a certainty there will be more to come.



Source by Anna Woodward

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The Basic Signs of Labor

Sometimes, labor signs can be very confusing. The onset of it should be the most anticipated event of pregnancy. Many pregnant women, especially first time mothers, are not that well knowledgeable about the whole course of pregnancy. Different emotions may arise. Some women may fear and may become very anxious because they do not know what to expect. Well, this article might be very helpful as it provides the basic signs of labor:

1. Water breaks – During pregnancy, a water-filled amniotic sac surrounds the baby before birth. You might see it as a warning sign that you are already on active labor because this sac ruptures and fluid starts to leak from your vagina. Some women may experience sudden burst or slightly leaking of this fluid. This should automatically prompt you to call a doctor and better head on to the hospital. When water breaks, delivery of the baby usually follow that soon.

2. Opening of the cervix – Another basic sign of labor is the opening of your cervix. Your cervix begins to open or dilate when the delivery is near. You may not know the status of your cervix’s measurement because a health care provider or a doctor should be the one to examine this. You can have it checked once you feel intense and continuous contractions or pain. Dilatation measures from zero up to ten. Some women may experience very slow cervical changes and some may experience faster cervical changes. It actually depends. When you are on active labor, the dilatation might progress even more.

3. Contractions – Contractions are one of the basic signs of labor. These are painful feelings ranging from your abdomen and radiating to your back. Women may have contractions all throughout the labor and delivery. As labor progresses, contractions also begin to intensify, become more frequent and more painful until the baby is delivered.

Do not just ignore any single sign. You might just take these signs for granted and might put yourself at risk in too much danger. You should be keen and watchful of the basic signs of labor so as to give birth safely and carefully.



Source by Elizabeth D. Johnson

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T-Shirts – Common Terms Explained

T-shirt manufacturers use many terms to describe their products. The terms are not always consistent and it helps to have a reference guide.

The following is the official Green Man T-Shirts Guide to understanding t-shirt terms:

20s, 20/1, 20s single: Unit of measurement that defines the fineness of cotton thread. A standard spool of single-ply cotton thread is comprised of 840 yards of cotton thread. If it takes 20 spools to weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 20s cotton, or 20/1. If 30 spools weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 30s cotton thread, or 30/1. If it takes 40 spools to weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 40s cotton, or 40/1. The higher number means a finer thread, and thus a finer, softer fabric is created. T-shirts made of 30s and 40s are softer, finer, and have better drape than t-shirts made of 20s. The terms are used many ways, but it’s the number that counts; “20s,” “20/1,” and “20 singles” are the same. Threads can be twisted together into thicker strands. If two 20/1 cotton threads were twisted together, it would be referred to as 20/2.

Bamboo Fabric: Rayon made from bamboo cellulose. Although rayon is a man-made synthetic material, most experts agree it is readily biodegradable. Bamboo fabric is extremely soft and has excellent drape.

Bamboo: Fast growing plant, classified as a grass, which can be readily processed into rayon to make bamboo rayon clothing.

Bleach Wash: A process that uses bleach to soften and distress the look of the fabric being washed.

Boat Neck: A very wide neckline that runs across the collarbone area to the shoulder points. Derives from early sailors’ shirts, where the wide neck enabled quick removal if the sailor fell overboard.

Boy Beater: Women’s fashion answer to the wife beater. A women’s tank top, although it can be any color.

Brushed Cotton: A method to remove excess lint and fibers from cotton fabric. Brushed cotton usually has a very soft, smooth finish.

Burn-Out: A process that uses sulfuric acid or other strong acid to “burn-out” parts of a fabric knit, usually a polyester/cotton blend. The process gives a see-through, very sheer effect.

Cap Sleeves: Usually refers to shorter sleeves on women’s garments.

Carbon Dioxide: CO2. A chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. Known as a “greenhouse” gas because of its relationship with global warming. A few t-shirt manufacturers are now measuring and recording the CO2 emissions involved in manufacturing their shirts.

Carbon Trust: Independent organization founded in 2001 in Great Britain that monitors carbon emissions. The Carbon Trust works with companies to help reduce their carbon footprint, and now certifies companies and products as having a “low carbon” or “no carbon” footprint. A few t-shirt companies now manufacture “low carbon footprint” t-shirts.

Carding: A fiber cleaning process that eliminates short fibers and removes dirt and foreign matter. Carding can be done by hand or by large machines using drum rollers. Carded-only cotton is not as desirable as combed cotton.

Cellulase Wash: Another name for enzyme wash. This gives fabric a soft feel and a vintage look, depending on how the wash is done.

Cellulose: Derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Useful in making certain types of fabrics, including acetate, triacetate, and rayon. Bamboo fabric is actually rayon made from bamboo cellulose.

Cheap Cotton T-Shirt: T-shirts made with carded cotton, using 18/1 thread, usually knitted on 20 gauge machines. These t-shirts are coarse, rough, and have poor drapability. Used often as cheap promotional give-aways.

Climate Neutral: A term used to describe a company, process, or product that has zero impact on the Earth’s climate. A few t-shirt manufacturers advertise their company as climate neutral.

CO2: Carbon dioxide. A chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. Known as a “greenhouse” gas because of its relationship with global warming.

Colorfastness: The ability of a garment to withstand multiple washings without losing its color.

Combed Cotton: A method to remove short fibers and to arrange longer fibers parallel to create a smooth, fine cotton yarn. Combed cotton has high strength, excellent uniformity, and better hand. Combed cotton costs more and is used in finer t-shirts.

Compacting: A process that compacts the space between cotton fiber pockets. Helps to reduce shrinking.

Contrasting Stitching: Stitching with a different color than the garment. Gives a nice design detail in t-shirts.

Control Union: An international organization that offers certification services for a variety of programs–including many organic certification programs. Certifies USDA Organic, as well as GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard).

Cotton Jersey: Knitted, very slightly stretchy fabric with a smooth flat face and a more textured but uniform back. Average weight per yard is about 5.5 to 6 ounces. Basic t-shirts are made of cotton jersey. Fine cotton jersey is usually smoother and has a lighter weight per yard.

Cotton: A natural fiber that is the most popular in the world for fabrics. Cotton fibers are usually ½ to 2 inches long. Longer fibers produce finer cotton fabric. Varieties such as Pima and Egyptian, which feature fibers exceeding 1.5 inches, are more highly valued than ordinary varieties.

Crew Neck: A round close-fitting neckline. Most common neck on t-shirts.

Crop Top: A shirt with a short body to it; made to expose the midriff area.

Double-Needle Stitched: Used mostly on sleeve/bottom hems and refers to a parallel row of stitching. This type of stitching gives durability and a cleaner, more finished look.

Drape, Drapability: Refers to how a fabric hangs. A fabric like bamboo rayon has excellent drape, while a coarse fabric like burlap has very little. T-shirts that have good drape qualities feel nicer to wear.

Drop Tail: A garment that features a longer back than front.

Eco-Friendly: Extremely loose term that refers to a product’s “greenness.” Almost useless in realistically assessing a product. Favorite term used by green washers.

Egyptian Cotton: Cotton produced in Egypt and valued for its long length of fiber. Apparel made with true Egyptian cotton is prized for its softness and fineness.

Environmental Justice Foundation: A registered charity established in 2000 to help people who suffer most from environmental abuses such as pesticide poisoning, water depletion, and soil destruction. Especially active in curbing abuses in cotton farming.

Enzyme Washed: A wash process using special enzymes to produce a soft finish and smooth look to a fabric. Ages dyes to create a special look to dyed fabrics. Enzyme washing is physically less harsh on the fabric compared to stone washing.

European Cut: A style of t-shirt that is narrower than what one normally finds. For example, a full cut men’s t-shirt, size large, usually runs 22 inches across the chest (measured one inch below the sleeve). A men’s large European cut will run about half an inch to 1 inch narrower, sometimes more.

Fabric Dyed: Fabric dyed before being cut and sewn into a finished piece of clothing.

Fair Labor Association: A nonprofit organization dedicated to ending sweatshop conditions in factories worldwide. Works to develop Code of Labor Practices, especially important in the apparel business where working conditions have historically been so poor.

Fair Wear Foundation: An international group dedicated to enhancing garment workers’ lives all over the world. Works with companies that produce clothing and other sewn products and that take responsibility for their supply chain.

Fine Cotton Jersey: Knitted, very slightly stretchy fabric with a smooth flat face and a more textured but uniform back. Fine cotton jersey is usually smoother and has a lighter weight per yard than regular cotton jersey. T-shirts made with fine cotton jersey have a better drape and feel than regular t-shirts. Usually made with 30s and higher cotton thread, and weighs about 4.3 ounces per square yard.

Fitted Cut: Definitions vary, but generally a fitted cut refers to a cut that flatters the body. Used often in women’s t-shirts, the middle section of the shirt will be tighter than the top or bottom. Overall, the shirts run narrower than a basic full cut.

Full Cut: A generous, roomy cut. In t-shirts, tubular styles are generally considered full-cut, but there are exceptions. Full Cut differs from the slimmer European Cuts, Slim Cuts, and Fitted Cuts.

Garment Dyed: Clothing dyed after it has been cut and sewn into a finished article of clothing.

Garment Washed: A process where finished articles of clothing are washed, usually with added softeners to improve the feel and look of the fabric.

GMO Free: GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organisms. First used in the 1990s when consumers became worried about genetically modified food. Many companies now apply the GMO free label on everything from food to natural fabrics, like cotton.

GOTS: Stands for Global Organic Textile Standard. A project of the International Working Group. They have developed standards to ensure organic status of textiles, from the harvesting, manufacturing, and labeling, in order to provide a credible assurance to the end consumer. An organic t-shirt that meets the standards can be GOTS certified.

Green: Generic term used by marketing gurus to promote products. Another favorite term of “green-washers,” who are hopping on the environmental bandwagon without any real commitment.

Green-Washing: Take off on the term “white-washing,” but in an environmental context. Companies that green-wash are paying lip-service to environmental concerns to attract more business, but haven’t taken any real steps to be environmentally responsible.

Hand: The way a fabric feels to the touch. A fabric that feels soft and smooth is considered to have a good hand.

Hemp Fabric: Hemp, or Cannabis sativa, has been used for fabric for thousands of years, mostly as an industrial fabric. Newer processing methods have made it suitable for finer clothing, and now it is used in many clothing articles, including t-shirts. Hemp is valued for its strength and durability.

Henley T-Shirt: Similar to a collarless polo shirt, a Henley is a pullover t-shirt featuring 2 or 3 buttons (sometimes up to 5 buttons are used, but that’s uncommon). A Henley can be either short or long sleeved.

Ice Wash: A method of stone washing where the stones are first soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate. This method produces a frosted appearance to fabric.

Interlock Knit: A type of knit that is very soft and has a good drape. Interlock knit stitches are tighter, more stretchy than Jersey knit, but less stretchy than rib knit. Used in very fine garments.

Jersey Knit: Commonly found in t-shirts and is the most durable of knits. It is light weight, and has fine vertical ribs. The Jersey knit was named after the British Island in the English Channel. Fine cotton Jersey refers to Jersey Knit made with fine cotton threads such as 30s and 40s.

Knit: Defines how the interlocking loops of yarn that make up fabric were made. There are many types of knits. Jersey Knit is commonly found in t-shirts and is the most durable of knits. It is light weight, and has fine vertical ribs. On the other hand, rib knits have heavy ribs running down the fabric, while interlock knits are used in very fine fabrics. T-shirt collars are usually rib knit.

Muscle Shirt: Sleeveless style t-shirt, but not exactly a tank top. Basic t-shirt, just without the sleeves. The shoulder strap portion is much wider than an ordinary tank top.

Neck Tape: A thin strip of fabric sewn over the seam running across the shoulders and neck area. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed stitch. Often referred to as “shoulder to shoulder taped.”

OekoTek 100: Certification from the International Oeko-Tex® Association, which assures consumers that the apparel they buy is chemical free and poses no risk to their health. Under the Oeko-Tex standard, clothing must be free of formaldehyde, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and other toxic chemicals.

Organic Apparel: A term very loosely applied in the garment industry. It can mean anything from 100% organic to as little as 6% organic. Often combined with terms like Eco-Friendly, Green, and so on. Consumers must check the labels and verify the materials used to see if something is truly organic or not.

Organic Cotton: Cotton grown without the use of pesticides. Certified organic cotton has been inspected to insure it truly is organic.

Organic Soil Association: Founded in 1946 by a group of farmers, scientists and nutritionists concerned about the relationship between farming practices and plant, animal, human, and environmental health. The Organic Soil Association pioneered the first organic standards in 1967, and certifies farms and businesses that meet those standards.

Overdyed: A process where previously dyed garments or fabrics are dyed with an additional color to create a unique look.

Performance T: Name for t-shirts manufactured for athletes and outdoor enthusiasts. Performance Ts are characterized by their breathability, moisture wicking, fast drying, and odor control capabilities. Many performance Ts are polyester/cotton blends, or can also be 100% polyester. Bamboo t-shirts, due to their absorbency and wicking properties, have become known as performance t-shirts, although they do not dry as fast as performance t-shirts made of 100% polyester.

PFD: Stands for Prepared For Dyeing. Sold this way to t-shirt customizers who want to create their own look with dyes.

Pigment Dyed: A type of dye that creates a washed out, distressed look.

Pima Cotton: A cotton developed in the U.S. in the early 1900s to compete with Egyptian cotton. It features longer fibers and is used often in fine men’s and women’s shirts. The name Pima comes from the Pima Indians, who helped with the first crops of the new cotton as it was first grown in the U.S.

Pique: A method of knitting that creates a waffle-type, fine textured surface. Used often in polo shirts.

Polyester: Man-made fiber manufactured from synthetic polymers. Used widely in apparel, especially combined with cotton in 50/50 blends.

Pre-Shrunk: Refers to the process of pre-shrinking fabric before it is cut and sewn. Occasionally it refers to an actual finished garment that has been preshrunk. Clothing that has been preshrunk shrinks less once the buyer washes it. Preshrunk cotton t-shirts will still shrink a bit, however, especially if dried using a clothes dryer.

Raglan T-Shirt: Style of t-shirt featuring sleeves that run directly to the collar. Usually the sleeves are a contrasting color from the body. Raglan sleeves are wider under the arms, and are preferred by wearers who want maximum freedom of movement. Baseball t-shirts usually feature a raglan sleeve style.

Rayon: Man-made fiber that uses plant cellulose as its main ingredient. Rayon is very soft, has excellent drape, and is very absorbent. Originally developed as a silk substitute.

Rib Knit: Characterized by heavy vertical ribs running down the fabric. Rib knits are usually classified as 1×1, 2×1 or 2×2. This lets you know the width of the rib compared to the space between. For example, a 1×1 rib knit or a 2×2 rib knit means the space between each rib is the same width as the ribs. But a 2×1 rib knit means the ribs are twice as wide as the spaces in between. Rib knit is very stretchy and is often used for t-shirt collars, cuffs, and tank tops.

Ring Spun: Refers to yarn made by twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. The continuous spinning results in a softer feel and stronger yarn. Ring-spun t-shirts are noticeably softer to the touch.

Ringer T: A t-shirt with colored sleeve bands and matching crew neck. Most ringers are white, with the armband sleeves and crew necks in various colors.

Sand Wash: Refers to using sand while washing a garment or fabric to soften and distress it.

Satin Washed: Another term for silicone washed, which produces a very smooth and soft finish to fabric, and also gives the fabric good draping properties.

Scoop Neck: Wide, gently curved neckline that varies in depth. Favored in women’s shirts.

Sheer Jersey: Very light weight jersey knit, weighing about 3.9 ounces per yard. A little stretchier than fine jersey.

Shoulder to Shoulder Tape: A thin strip of fabric sewn over the seam running across the shoulders and neck area. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed stitch.

Shrinkage: Usually refers to cotton apparel and the amount it can be expected to shrink. Most cotton t-shirts are pre-shrunk, but 4-5% shrinkage can still be expected.

Side Seamed: Refers to shirts with a seam running down at each side under the arm sleeves to the bottom hem. Side seamed t-shirts are more expensive to manufacture.

Silicone Washed: Refers to using inert silicone in a washing process. Produces a very smooth and soft finish to fabric, and also gives the fabric good draping properties.

Singlet: another term for a men’s tank top.

Slim Cut: A style of t-shirt that is narrower than what one normally finds. For example, a full cut men’s t-shirt, size large, usually runs 22 inches across the chest (measured one inch below the sleeve). A slim cut will run about half an inch to 1 inch narrower, sometimes more.

Stonewashed: A washing process that uses lava rocks or sometimes silicon and rubber balls. This method makes fabric softer and gives it an aged or distressed look. Sometimes bleach is used in this process.

Tank Top: T-Shirt characterized by thin shoulder straps and no sleeves. The name came from the early term for swimming pools: swimming tanks.

Taped Seam: Not actual “tape,” but a thin strip of fabric sewn over the seam running across the shoulders and neck area of t-shirts. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed stitch.

Tubular Style:A style that has no side seams; the body of the t-shirt is round and straight. Tubular t-shirts are less expensive to manufacture, and make up the bulk of the cheaper t-shirts.

Unisex T-Shirt: No standard definition exists for a unisex t-shirt, but generally speaking a unisex t-shirt is made of lighter weight, fine cotton jersey, side seamed, and not cut as full as a regular men’s t-shirt. The sleeves are not extra short, like cap sleeves, but are not full elbow lengths either. The body length is usually medium/long. However, there are wide variations in unisex t-shirts, depending on the manufacturer.

Uzbekistan: Former U.S.S.R. satellite that became independent in 1991 and is notorious for its cotton production methods, which include forced child labor and environmentally destructive practices. Ethical apparel companies boycott Uzbekistan cotton; however, many companies don’t care and have refused to join in the boycott because Uzbekistan cotton is cheap.

V -Neck: Inverted triangle style of neckline. Can be deep or shallow, depending on the style. Usually favored by women, but a shallow style v-neck is popular among men.

Viscose: Typically another name for rayon, as in viscose rayon.

Weight: Usually expressed ounces per square yard. A 5.5 ounce weight cotton fabric means that one square yard will weigh 5.5 ounces. Fine jersey cotton fabrics usually have lighter weights, while coarser cotton fabrics have heavier weights.

Wife Beater: Derogatory term for a men’s tank top t-shirt. Usually refers to a basic white tank top.

Yarn Dyed: Yarn that is dyed before it is woven into a fabric.



Source by David Urban

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Monoculture Farming – Disadvantages And Negative Effects On The Environment

The term monoculture in agriculture refers to the growing of a single crop over a large area. Monoculture is the norm in most large-scale commercial agriculture in the U.S. and in many parts of the world. Monoculture has certain short-term benefits, primarily in terms of economy of scale, and automation of the production process (and thus reduction of labor costs). However, in the long-term, the disadvantages of monoculture are overwhelming – this farming method has numerous negative effects on the environment, and furthermore, these negative effects tend to become amplified over the long-run. This article weighs the pros and cons of this sort of uniform approach to agriculture, and points to some alternative practices that are more sustainable, both environmentally and economically, and thus superior on all counts in the long-run.

Pros and cons of monoculture farming: what are its advantages?

It is immediately evident that I am not a fan of or advocate for monoculture. But there are some direct and strongly compelling reasons that people engage in this destructive practice. Before we talk about why this practice is so harmful, I find it fruitful to first examine its benefits or advantages.

The main advantage is economy of scale, primarily through automation. Especially in the U.S., labor costs are very high, so anything that can reduce the use of labor in agriculture is highly likely to result in cost savings. This is often true even when the automation reduces yield per acre. For example, if a crop has been grown, it can often be harvested in different ways, with different levels of automation. Greater automation in harvesting might result in greater waste, such as grain left in the fields, but if it requires less labor (such as one person driving a large machine which covers the ground very quickly, as opposed to several people driving smaller, slower machines, or many people harvesting the crop by hand) it may be superior in a cost-benefit analysis, even if it results in greater waste.

Disadvantages of monoculture farming:

The most compelling disadvantage of monoculture farming is that it is not adaptable. Wild ecosystems are diverse, and wild populations of plants and animals are also diverse. An ecosystem contains numerous different species, each with unique adaptations to its environment, and distinct strengths and weaknesses in response to changing conditions. Similarly, the natural population of a plant or animal species has genetic variability, and each individual plant or animal has slightly different traits. Furthermore, each population, and the ecosystem as a whole, is constantly changing, adapting to the changing environmental conditions and the conditions imposed by the other populations and species in the system.

Monoculture smooths out this variability, destroying the diversity and replacing it with, at best, a single species, and at worst (as is the norm in the U.S.), a single cultivar – rows and rows of genetically identical crops, essentially cloned, reproduced through cuttings or genetically engineered seed stock.

Susceptibility to pests:

The ecological landscape of monoculture is that there is a massive range of genetically identical plants, against a backdrop of wild pests, which include fungi, bacteria, insects, and numerous other organisms. These pests each have a wild population with its own biodiversity, and their populations are constantly changing and adapting to being able to eat the crops or benefit from the presence of whatever crops are being grown. The monoculture crops, however, are not.changing, and are not able to adapt because they have no genetic variability and are not allowed to reproduce naturally. Plant pests, weeds, also adapt, seeding into the fields of crops, taking advantage of the extra sunlight, as most monoculture crops let through ample light and are not making full use of the sun’s energy.

The only way to control pests in this setup is to expend ever-greater energy and resources on chemical control, either through the spraying of pesticides, fungicides, or bactericides on crops, or through the genetic engineering of crops to enable them to produce these chemicals themselves. But without the natural adaptation, pests will eventually evolve to resist any of these defenses. The setup of monoculture is inherently doomed, as it is working against the natural ways in which ecosystems work. It is completely unsustainable in the long-run.

Negative environmental impacts of monoculture:

Because monoculture farming requires ever-increasing levels of chemical inputs, the negative impacts on the environment are also continuously increasing. Although people often prefer to use safer chemicals when they exist, and use them in as low a concentration as possible, any safe chemical will necessarily eventually stop working. Many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are known to be toxic and/or carcinogenic, or have other negative impacts on humans. But even chemicals that are safe for human consumption or exposure can have negative impacts on the environment; for example, roundup, a widely used herbicide, is much more toxic to amphibians than it is to humans.

Other negative effects of monoculture:

Besides the negative environmental effects, monoculture also destroys our culture. Monoculture and large-scale factory farming is in large part responsible for or associated with the alienation of Americans from the practice of farming, and the move from an economy in which a large portion of people were directly involved in farming towards a society in which people see food as an industrial product to be purchased in a store, with little idea of where it comes from.

Beyond monoculture: how you can help protect the environment and food and farming culture:

The empire of factory farming and wide-scale monoculture is thankfully crumbling. You can do your part by learning more about gardening, by experimenting with growing some of your own food, even if you just have a small city yard, or even growing some indoors or on a porch or balcony if you do not have a yard. You can also explore farmer’s markets with locally grown food, and encourage small-scale, local production, by diversified farming methods, by using your money to support these farmers. As we return to diversified agriculture, we will become more connected to our food, and help protect our environment as well.



Source by Alex Zorach

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Medicine

There are reasons why people chose alternative medicine and reasons why they avoid it, preferring conventional medicine. Alternative medicine is safer than standard health treatments and usually works. It’s true that it can’t be used in severe conditions like car accidents or other severe emergencies, but be that as it may, there are enough situations in which alternative medicine is recommended. When it comes to emotional and spiritual needs, non-conventional medicine may come up with the solution. Furthermore, it’s better for preventing illnesses than standard medicine. More and more physicians nowadays agree upon the benefits of alternative medicine and also even advise their clients to choose the best natural treatment for them.

One of the advantages of alternative medicine is that it encompasses a broad range of therapies, treatments and products, thus the search for obtaining positive results doesn’t flow on a narrow path at all.

A pretty important disadvantage states the idea that, even though the expenses of using acupuncture or chiropractic are sometimes covered by health insurances, the majority of alternative treatments are not reimbursed.

There are certain risks that come along with the usage of natural remedies. Despite the use of herbs throughout the years and even ancient times, not all of them have been studied regarding their safety and efficiency. There are issues concerning their purity and their possible interaction with other substances related to conventional therapies. The majority of information regarding herbs have been perpetuated throughout history and with the help of tradition. Many people assume that herbal medicines are better than synthetic drugs simply because, well, they are natural and not synthetic, therefore present no risk. But they are not risk free; they can do more harm than good if taken without having the details of their effects over the body.

People might abuse of natural medicines the same way as they do it in the case of synthetic drugs. They have the misconception that if unconventional medicine consists of herbal products which are natural, then there is no harm done if they triple the dosage or more. This is totally wrong and can have serious consequences. Take vitamins for example. They are just vitamins, right? They can’t possibly do any damage inside the body. But they do. Vitamin overdosing or vitamin toxicity can lead to unpleasant effects depending on the vitamin that has been taken one too many times. Vitamin A over dosage can cause liver problems, osteoporosis, hair loss and other dangerous effects and Hypervitaminosis D leads to dehydration, vomiting, anorexia and even kidney stones.

An advantage of using herbal remedies concerns the effectiveness related with chronic health issues that don’t respond well or even at all to traditional medicines. If long term medication is needed, then herbs are pretty much safer than conventional drugs. The alternative medicine industry takes advantage from this and keeps evolving and developing due to the constant need for natural remedies.

Another advantage is the low cost of herbal products compared to synthetic drugs which are highly priced for the simple reason that researching and testing the products is expensive. Furthermore, herbal products can be bought without a prescription and are easy to procure. The availability of natural remedies is outstanding; chamomile for example can be easily picked out from a nearby field.

The advantages of using herbal medicines are numerous, but so are the disadvantages. The best idea would be to consider modern medicine according to the severity of the illness, to consult a physician upon the proper medication and dosage and if you do chose the alternative medicine, try to gather enough information upon both kinds of treatments, natural or synthetic, so you may reassure yourself that you took the right decision to balance your health situation.



Source by Peter Rosenblum

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Penis Odor – Why It Occurs and How to Get Rid of the Fishy Smell

Among the many complaints about penis problems, unpleasant and off-putting odors are one of the most common. As a rule most men don’t like to talk about this kind of issue with their health care provider, but a fishy penis smell can be embarrassing and it is certainly not a turn-on for a potential sexual partner. Fortunately, getting rid of an unpleasant penis odor can be as simple as cleaning the skin properly and applying a penis crème which contains natural antibacterial agents and moisturizers.

Causes of fishy penis odor

Unpleasant penis odors are generally a sign of bacteria on the penis skin, especially in uncircumcised men. Dr. David King, director of urology services at the El Camino Hospital of Los Gatos, CA explains that “the most common causes of bad smell around the penis would be related to poor hygiene and skin infections.”

Hygiene-related penis odor

Foul penis odor often occurs when dead skin cells build up underneath the foreskin, attracting bacteria which create a fishy smell directly related to lack of proper cleansing. To address this problem, Dr. King recommends that all men pull back the foreskin completely and wash the area underneath with warm water and a mild cleanser. In addition, it is important to dry the area carefully as bacteria thrive in warm, moist places and to pull the foreskin back to its original position.

Yeast infection

Aside from poor hygiene, skin infections can also cause a fishy smell. Thrush, or yeast infection, is often the cause of penis odor and can affect both circumcised and uncircumcised men. Aside from an unpleasant smell, a yeast infection is often accompanied by a cheesy, whitish discharge, as well as uncomfortable burning and itching. Painful urination may also occur if the infection has affected the urethra, or opening at the tip of the penis.

Bacterial vaginosis (in sexual partners)

Men whose female sexual partners are affected by bacterial vaginosis, a condition which also causes a fishy smell due to imbalances in body chemistry, may also experience the odor on their own penis. Again, washing carefully and moisturizing the penis skin can help to address this problem.

Other causes of penis odor

Some of the less-common causes of penis odor include urinary tract infections; the bacteria that cause the infection may spread to the outside of the penis, around the urethral opening, resulting in a detectable fishy smell. In addition, some diabetics are affected by a condition known as ketonuria, in which waste products from the breakdown of fatty acids can accumulate in the urine and cause a fishy odor.

Promoting a healthy penis

Fortunately, most cases of bad penis odor can be resolved fairly easily. As mentioned earlier, proper hygiene is the first step. Aside from keeping the area, clean, men can take the following steps to prevent or eliminate unpleasant penis smells:

1. Moisturize. Overly dry penis skin often develops minute fissures which allow the bacteria that are often responsible for a fishy smell to penetrate. Natural moisturizers such as shea butter work well for sensitive penis skin, while those containing vitamin E create natural moisture barrier that prevents dehydration.

2. Reduce the presence of bacteria on the skin. Nourishing the penis skin with natural anti-bacterials such as vitamin A can help to eliminate the presence of odor-causing bacteria and to prevent bacterial infections. In addition, vitamin C can help to boost the immune system and protect the body from disease.

Applying a specialized formula containing penis vitamins moisturizers and other nutrients (most health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil) as part of the daily personal care regimen may help to keep the penis clean, healthy and odor free.



Source by John Dugan

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List of 21 Good Dares for Playing Truth or Dare

On sleepovers, college parties and birthdays, Truth or Dare still is the most popular game ever. The only problem is: people run out of ideas for good dares pretty fast. Check out this list of dares for the next time you play Truth or Dare!

1. Get your wrists and legs tied together for 5 minutes

This dare is especially evil if other dares have to be completed with tied hands afterwards. You can even tie different players together for added fun.

2. Go out and feed at least one cat in the neighborhood

3. Pin a coin against the wall with your nose for 3 min

This dare is much harder than it sounds. Especially if your friends make you laugh in the meantime.

4. Act as if you are crying and describe your worst date

Get creative and make some good drama. Let others have fun with your little scene!

5. Act like a dog and get out in the courtyard for 5 min

Tail wagging, leg lifting, barking – your dog names it, you do it!

6. Ask the most beautiful person of the party for a kiss

This is a very sweet dare. Whomever you ask will get this not-so-subtle compliment. But it’s still cute. Go get that kiss!

7. Go outside the next time you have to go to the toilet

This one is easy for the guys to do.

8. Imitate an animal and have everyone guess what it is.

You’ll be surprised at how bad the other players are with hearing your elephant that sounds like a dying frog-giraffe…!

9. Stand in corner for 5 minutes while others are watching.

Especially effective if you have been handcuffed to someone/something, stripped or drenched. Or if you are ticklish and others can tease you while you are stuck without being able to fight back!

10. Lick ketchup from the back of a person of your choice

Easy, sexy or horrible dare. Depending on the back of the person you are licking!

11. Sing a really romantic song with a hard and dry voice

Have the girls do this dare. It’ll be fun for everyone!

12. Drink a mixture of 1/3 sugar, 1/3 salt and 1/3 coffee

You can mix up all sorts of drinks. Be sure that you have the right age for the drink you’re drinking.

13. Imitate a cartoon character and have everyone guess it

14. Pretend to be a clock and show the time with your legs

And show everyone how flexible you are (or not).

15. Put a pillow up your shirt and pretend to be in labor pains.

You’ll have some really sarcastic fun with this one! Be sure to check with the neighbors before you make too much noise. You can pretend the pillow is your baby after it’s born.

16. Think of your favorite swear word and yell it out loud

17. You have to ask out the next person coming in the room

Or you can go up to him or her and try to get a kiss in. Don’t get slapped!

18. Exchange one piece of clothing with your right neighbor

Have a girl and a guy with very different sizes do it for added fun.

19. Have a pointless conversation with a stranger for a min.

The key is to hold the conversation for a full minute. This will seem longer than you think. If you fail, start over.

20. Have someone pour a glass of cold water down your pants.

21. Have the group mix different sauces. You have to eat it.

That’s it: hope you can make good use of those dares for Truth or Dare. Don’t get too crazy with it. Truth or Dare parties are all about the fun, not so much about having someone feeling guilty or disgusted.



Source by Adam F. Bellman

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Sic Bo: Bet Your Numbers Combo, Shake Up Three Dice for a Possible Win on the Outcome

If you’re interested in playing a casino table game that’s diverse from the all too familiar games ala Blackjack, 3 Card Poker, Craps, and Roulette, you may want to try Sic Bo.

The game is very popular in Southeast Asia, Korea and in the world’s newest gaming destination, Macau, China. It is lesser known in the west, although it can be found in some upper end casinos in Las Vegas and Atlantic City, usually confined to areas designated for Asian games.

The Objective of Sic Bo

The objective is to wager on the outcome of various numerical groupings when three dice are rolled. Winning combination payouts from the fifty allowable bets range from 1 to 1 to as high as 180 to 1.

Sic Bo is played on a large rectangular table with a house dealer, although table layouts, components and payouts will vary slightly between jurisdictions. There are fourteen betting stations but there is no limit to the number of players. The table minimum is usually five dollars. Three dice numbering from one to six sit on a vibrating platform under a glass dome.

Bet options are shown in pictorial configuration with their payout amounts. Wagers are placed directly on the desired combination(s). The dealer initiates the first round of the table’s play by activating the vibrating platform. When it stops he will enter each die face number onto a keypad that lights up the winning combinations. Then rotating around the table, each player takes his/her turn at vibrating the dice in the electric cage shaker after placing their bets. The dealer will once again enter the die face numbers onto the keypad.

There are seven different types of bets in Sic Bo:

Small or Big Bet

Betting that the total will be between 4 and 10 (small) or between 11 and 17 (big). A win pays even money at 1 to 1. These are your best odds even though any combination of three equal numbers are a loss to the player, such as a combo of 2-2-2 equaling 6 on the small bet. This provides the house edge of about 3%.

Single Number Bet

Betting that a combination of two particular numbers will appear. Payout 5 to 1.

Three Number Total Sum

Betting on the combined total of all three dice from 4 to 17. Payouts range from 6 to 1 up to 60 to 1 as outlined on the table.

Double Bet

Betting that the resulting roll will contain two of any number. Pays 10 to 1.

Any Triple Bet

Betting that the resulting roll will contain three of any number. Pays 30 to 1.

Triple Bet

Betting that the resulting roll will contain three of a specific number. The payout is huge at 180 to 1, but this is the worst bet in Sic Bo. There are 216 (6x6x6) possible dice combinations and only one can be a winner. True odds; 216 to 1!

You might find this game fun to play in that it’s unlike the other table games.

Good Luck!



Source by Dennis J Occhino

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