Month: December 2017

What Are Goji Berries and Are They the Same As Wolfberries?

There’s a marvelous little red berry that grows all around the world, and people in different places call it by different names. Many English speaking people call it a Wolfberry, and nowadays even more English speakers are calling it a Goji Berry. But it’s really the very same thing.

As we all know, Science assigns two Latin names to every botanical organism, a genus and a species. Two plants that are even a little different from each other have different species names. Thus, if two plants have the same genus and species names, they’re the same plant. People can call them by different names, but that doesn’t change the fact that they’re actually the same thing.

The Goji berry/Wolfberry plant, whose genus is Lycium, has two closely related species. One species is known as Barbarum and the other is Chinensis. Both species grow in many places on the earth.

Since people in different countries tend to speak different languages, it’s not surprising that Chinese and Tibetan people don’t call these berries wolfberries. China has many dialects. The plant is frequently called gǒuqǐ and the berries are called gǒuqǐzi (zi means “berry.”) “Goji” is a simplified pronunciation of gǒuqǐ.

A similar word can be found in other languages. For example, in Korea the berry is called gugija, and in Thailand it is known as găo gè. Tibetan has many names for the berries, including qouki, qou ki ji, quak qou, kew ji, and kew ki. In Japanese the plant is called kuko and the fruit is known as kuko no mi or kuko no kajitsu.

In about 1973, the word “Goji” began to be used for the first time in English so English speakers could have a word for this berry that was similar to these Asian words. Since then, the word “Goji” has been exploited by many marketers as the berries have appeared in more and more natural foods stores in the U.S. The new word “Goji” is now quite commonly used.

It’s not really clear where the word “wolfberry” originated. One theory is that it comes from the place name “Lycia”, the ancient name for Anatolia, in Turkey, and “Lycia” can be heard in the name Lycium Barbarum. “Barbarum” means that the wolfberry plant might have come from elsewhere, such as China, originally.

But this doesn’t explain why it has the word “wolf” in it. Thus, another possibility is that Lycium Barbarum comes from the Greek word “Lycos,” or Wolf. Wolves do eat berries and other fruits to get needed fiber in their diets. They also eat tomatoes, the Latin name of which means “Wolf Peach” (Solanum lycopersicum.) The word “lycos,” or wolf, can be seen in the Latin.

The genus Tomato (Solanum) contains another species, lycocarpum, which translates to Wolf Apple. This medium sized yellow tomato isn’t familiar to many of us because it grows in South America. South American wolves eat them! It’s not the same plant as the tomato we’re used to in North America. What’s my point? I’m getting to that…

Goji berries and Wolfberries are in the Nightshade family (Solanaceae), and so are tomatoes! Nightshades are an important source of food and spice. Nightshade species include potatoes, eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, chili peppers (capsicum), deadly nightshade (belladonna), datura (jimson weed), tobacco, mandrake, wolfberry and many more.

Many of the species in this important family of foods are used in making herbal medicines by native peoples all around the world. Some of them have psychoactive properties. Goji berries are legendary as a medicinal plant and have been used as such for many centuries in many countries.

Goji berries and wolfberries have lots of other names such as boxthorn, Duke of Argyll’s Tea Tree, Matrimony Vine, Bocksdorn, Cambronera, Chinese Wolfberry, and Red Medlar.

The point here is that Lycium Barbarum and Lycium Chinensis are two completely different species, two completely different plants. Many people proclaim different names for them. They claim, for example, that “Tibetan Lycium Eleagnus Barbarum” is the REAL Himalayan Gogi berry, even though it doesn’t actually exist as a species.

There’s no question that these two species have different medicinal and nutritional properties, BECAUSE they’re different species. In fact, it’s not only that different species are different from each other, it’s also true that all the many VARIETIES of any one species are somewhat different chemically and therefore nutritionally.

In some mountainous areas of Tibet and northern China there is what is commonly known as the “Goji belt,” a fertile high altitude region where Goji plants are cultivated and grow wild. The “highest quality” Goji berries are produced in the best location and climate, which turns out to be this Goji belt. This is because of the purity of the water and the mineral-rich soil washing down from the high mountains.

The political strife going on between Tibet and China is well known. There is also Tibetan/Chinese political strife about what defines a Goji berry. From a Western perspective, this is just plain confusing.

Additionally, the name Tibet carries an unmistakable mystique. It’s therefore easy for Western marketers to capitalize on it, claiming the superiority of TIBETAN Goji berries over all others. But, as we’ve shown, from a scientific perspective, “Tibetan” Goji berries don’t exist.

Tibet, a country more vertical than horizontal, mostly dry, infertile and arid, with few roads among the highest mountains in the world, is not famous for farming. It’s adjacent to China. The political boundaries really don’t matter to the land or the Goji plants; instead, as has been mentioned, the soil and the climate are the important factors when growing Chinese wolfberries and Goji berries.

The highest quality berries have the highest levels of glyconutrients and are grown in Ningxia and Xinjiang provinces in China, right in the Goji belt. These areas have exceptional growing seasons, unusually alkaline soil, adequate rainfall and extreme temperature fluctuations from 102 to -16 degrees F.

The Goji belt produces four grades of Goji berries: super, king, special and Grade A. The largest berries are “super,” second largest are “king,” etc. You might find marketers advertising their berries as the biggest, but they’re still all the same berry, Lycium Barbarum. They’re that unless, of course, they’re Lycium Chinensis.

Wolfberries, Gojis, they’re wonderful. It’s easy for politics and marketers to confuse and blow smoke all around a bushel of Goji berries or Goji juice. However, nothing clouds the central fact that this unique little berry is the biggest nutritional powerhouse in the world!

Source by Rachel Trueblood

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Composites – What is the Potential of Any Relationship?

Recently I explored relationships from the standpoint of the individuals involved, which is astrologically termed synastry. Each of the two people in a relationship is viewed individually for their personal relating potential. Once each is individually described, a comparison between the two describes the more intimate details of their story. However, there is more than one way to look at relationships. At the moment any pairing occurs, a new dynamic is produced which is termed a relationship. Relationships occur on so many levels: parent and child, marriage, boss and worker, teacher and student, siblings, in-laws, law and criminal, doctor and patient, stalker and victim, clergy and parishioner, to name a few.

Regardless of how many people we meet and the circumstances under which we meet them, in a split second of time a unique relationship is formed, one that did not exist prior to that moment and will cease to exist if the two people involved choose not to pursue it. Some of these meetings are brief such as a waitress handing you a cup of coffee. Some last a lifetime such as family members or marriage partners.

The bond that occurs between a mother and a child at the moment of birth is unique. After many years of refusing to allow the father to be present at the birth, the medical establishment currently encourages the father’s participation. The split-second bonding that the mother has always experienced is now available to the father. Yes! Nothing can equal that incredible moment and nothing can capture it once it has passed without the father’s participation. The mother really does not have a choice at childbirth; her participation is mandatory. Many years ago I took a workshop by Joseph Chilton Pearce in which this birth moment bonding process was explored. I immediately went home and told my son and his pregnant wife to be sure they were both part of the birthing process if it was at all possible. Many grandkids later, my whole family encourages this experience because of the bonding that occurs at the instant of birth.

Suppose I have ten friends. Each pairing provides a unique friendship. This takes nothing away from my other nine friends and enlarges each of our lives because of those friendships. I am bettered and my friend is bettered by our friendship. If I am a better person because of that friendship, I will be a better person to all my other friends, family, co-workers, etc. Whatever adds to my personal dimension in a positive fashion affects everything I do and everyone I touch with my more positive self. Conversely, if I am in a relationship that is negative, that negativity also affects all other relationships in which I participate if I am in any way diminished or compromised in the experience of that one relationship. I have been lessened therefore I am less than what I could be with all whom I come in contact.

To me there seem to be parts or stages to relationships in general. There is an initial introductory part… the beginning. Next comes the process, duration and nature of the relationship. A third stage might have to do with endings or finality. This would translate loosely to a beginning, a middle and an end. I am sure there are other divisions or stages to explore. Each stage has myriad possibilities for experience as each relationship is unique. Astrologically we can easily look at the potential of any relationship (the beginning) and we can also look at the reality of the relationship (the middle and possibly the end). At times the potential and the reality of a relationship work harmoniously. What we see is what we get. At other times a relationship does not live up to its potential. What we see is not what we get. It would be helpful to compare both possibility and reality to determine which relationships have a better chance of success in real life terms. In this article we will examine the potential of the relationship using the composite wheel. The reality of a relationship will be covered in a companion article.

The method by which you construct a composite wheel is to start with the natal (birth) wheels of each of the two individuals involved. Briefly, there are 13 major points that are traditional when reading astrologically: the Sun, Moon, and the eight planets, the ascendant, midheaven and lunar nodes. Thirteen points are primary out of a possible 360-degree circle for each person. You construct these points by adding together the two Suns, the two Moons, the two ascendants, etc. separately. Once you have obtained those totals, you divide each of them by two and that gives you the new figures for the composite wheel. Example: Sun #1 plus Sun #2 divided by two equals the composite Sun. The new wheel is drawn by traditional rules and is called a composite. In our modern era, computer-generated wheels do all the work for you. You have a wheel.

At this point you must do a very unusual thing with your mind. You must stop thinking of the individuals involved and keep your focus on the relationship as an entity. This wheel is not about the individuals, no matter how much one individual wants to slant it in their own direction. This map is about the potential of the relationship that is formed not the individual people involved. I am repeating the word potential for a reason. Because of the mathematics involved, this artificial wheel assumes that the two people involved will meet each other half way on all issues, 50/50, and that is not remotely possible in any society. There must be give and take between the two people involved in any relationship but equalization on all issues is a fantasy. The composite allows you to see the idealized potential but may not fit the actuality of the experience over time. Why?

At the beginning of any meaningful relationship, the people involved really have high hopes for the relationship and are on their best behavior to ensure that the relationship continues. This is an unnatural behavior because none of us can be on our best behavior forever. Sooner or later we will relax into normalcy (for us) and that produces change in the relationship. It is not faking or intentional, it is natural. Most of us will do whatever we must to cement a relationship and then we relax. Over time the potential that enticed us may not turn out to be our actual experience. This can be disillusioning and disappointing but it may not be deliberate. Eventually we each will be true to our own selves as the “ideal” gives way to “reality.” If we have made the mistake of putting one another on pedestals this could be devastating as one or both fall off those pedestals. The repercussions from such falls can get very nasty.

Composite is the technique that has been easily available to astrologers for many years both as hand-cast wheels and computer printouts. It is an excellent tool for exploring the potential of the relationship and has been the most popular choice of astrologers worldwide. The alternative is called the relationship wheel and is based in reality but was extremely difficult to calculate by hand. With the advent of computer printouts, this wheel has become increasingly available. The body of information and experience to support this alternative technique is growing but far more information is currently available for the composite technique.

How to Read A relationship in its initial stages can be such a delight. Our imagination and our wishes for a good life are in full bloom as we explore the possibilities. The question is will the ongoing relationship live up to our expectations? It is not individuals who disappoint us. It is our unrealistic expectations that cause failure and frustration. A person on a pedestal has only one direction to go and that is off. We might discover that our knight in shining armor is rusty with a nasty disposition or that any female involved may not be the virtuous Maid Marion.

  • The composite Sun describes the inherent nature and identity of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena of strongest influence by house.
  • The composite Moon describes the nesting urge and the emotional makeup of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where those issues will play out by house.
  • Composite Mercury describes the communication and decision-making function of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.
  • Composite Venus describes the relating ability and social and financial values of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.
  • Composite Mars describes the action, assertive and aggressive functions of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.
  • Composite Jupiter describes the expansive, philosophical and worldview of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.
  • Composite Saturn describes the traditional, responsible, organizing function of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.
  • Composite Uranus describes the forward-seeking, non-traditional, unusual facets of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house. Can you say chemistry?
  • Composite Neptune describes the imagination, inspiration or the delusional function of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.
  • Composite Pluto describes the power, manipulation or obsessive/compulsive function of the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.
  • The composite ascendant shows the couple’s projection, coping skills, and response to the environment of the couple’s relationship potential by sign. (The ascendant is the 1st house cusp). This is how the relationship itself is viewed by others.
  • The composite midheaven shows the couple’s drive to goals, stature and potential for success as the couple’s team relationship potential by sign. (The midheaven is the 10th house cusp). This is what expresses the couple’s need to achieve or accomplish.
  • The composite north lunar node shows the group interaction and collective influence of outsiders to the couple’s relationship potential by sign and the arena where that will play out by house.

The traditional use of aspects will illustrate the inter-relationship between the composite planets and points. I do reduce the orb of effect to 5 degrees because the composite is a construct and not a real time and space wheel.

Always remember that the composite and the reading is about a couple and not the individuals. Include the word potential in your readings because the composite represents what the relationship is and how it will work if the couple meets each other 50% of the way on all issues.

Composites are quite valuable in the initial stage of the relationship because that is what the people involved are seeing and experiencing. If you have concerns about what you see in the composite as an astrologer it is not easy to get the participants to see your concerns clearly. They see the relationship through the filter of wants, needs and expectations. They want it to succeed so it is difficult to accept that problems may be lurking. Sometimes you have to rain on someone’s parade to point out all the facets you see and not just the positives. The reality check occurs in the companion relationship wheel that is based on real-time calculations. Stay tuned.

Recommended reading:

Relationships – An Astrological Look at Possibilities

Relationships – Synastry – Who are You? Who am I? How Do We Affect One Another?

Source by Marilyn Muir

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What is a Successful Life?

How do you define a successful life? Is it becoming a millionaire or a sports champion? Is it finding the cure for an illness? Or is it raising happy, well adjusted children?

Luck is not the factor that determines our success. Success is the realization of your goals. Ask any successful person what they want to achieve in their life and they can tell you exactly what that is.

It is Bill Gates dream that everyone has a computer at home. He became an extremely wealthy man in the process but it is not the money that makes him successful. He has actually realized his dream.

In fact, if you look at a lot of people that we consider successful, very few were motivated purely by the money. People who are successful usually get lots of material rewards, which are hard to not be attached to, even when they were not the original reasons for them driving for success.

Roger Bannister did not break the four minute mile for money but to prove it could be done. Mount Everest was the mountain Edmund Hilary wanted to conquer.

Mother Theresa wanted to help the poor but she probably never dreamt she would start a responsible organization responsible for helping millions of unfortunate people worldwide. Although she died poor, it was the general opinion that she had been successful in life.

If you are spoiled and lazy, can you be successful? In fact, I would disagree; I would say that dedication, resilience and hard work are the real secrets to success. You need the ability to pick yourself up and start over when things do not go according to plan.

People who are successful see setbacks as opportunities. To have a successful life, firstly you need to look at what success means to you personally.

Forget about other people's definition and find your own. You need to be committed to making this work. This may mean putting in longer hours than anyone else. It may mean studying and working at the same time. No matter what you have to do, the commitment and energy to achieve it will be there for you.

It is only when you know exactly what you want to achieve and make that your goal, will you recognize opportunities being offered to you to help you get to your destination.

If you do not know what you want, how will you recognize when life is giving you a chance? To be successful you need to use a guide and it just like using a map to reach a new destination.

Know your destination, how to get there and be determined to do anything to make it.

Whether you are successful or not in life is not your parents fault, the fault of your genes or your third grade teacher. Accepting total responsibility for your results in life so far will help you create the life you want.

If you think you can or think you can not, you are usually right! Henry Ford (1863-1947)

Source by James Jolie

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List Of Stuff You Do not Want Your Ranger To Say

Kruger National Park safaris are magical, beautiful and definitely unforgetable. You will meet friendly locales, enjoy wonderful wildlife viewing and leave with an understanding of why Africa is dear to so many. Luxurious accommodation options will give you all the creature comforts you are used to, while still providing and authentic and wild break. Safety is definitely catered for as establishments employ qualified and skilled rangers, and if you follow their lead, then you will have no complications during your stay.

After this, you can not help but worry about scary encounters with animals, or things going wrong during your safari. For this reason, we have put together a short list of things that you would never want to hear during your safari in the Kruger National Park:

· Stop, drop and play dead!

In reality this would actually be stop, drop, AAAARRGGHHHH! You're dead. The need to play dead means that something is about to attack you. For American travelers, this may work on bears, but in Africa, a lion will be grateful that you saved it the effort of having to chase you down, and then it will start to consume you.

· WOAH! I've never seen it do that before.

If you hear this, then you are probably in the company of a guide who has little or no experience. If it encourages you to pet the lions or feed the hyena, then you are definitely in trouble and should attempt to locate your place of accommodation before the sun sets, and feeding time begins.

· Now he's really upset:

Getting a wild animal upset is stupid. Getting one very upset is deadly. If you treasure your life, then you should find an enclosed space where you can cower in fear until you reach safety.

· It's totally safe, except leopards enter the area, they are good climbers … but that rarely happens.

Leopards can climb … leopards can kill. Being in an open area which can be accessed by these beasts would be a good idea … um … never. If you like your limbs, politely ask if you could be transferred to a destination where animals are not waiting to feast on you.


The first thing you need to do when hearing these words of terror is judge the distance. This will tell you how much time you have to get away. You could find the source of the scream if you want to be a hero, but then you too would utter these words before moving on to another form of existence.

Source by Anita Lyon

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Why You Can’t Use A Calculator On The ASVAB

If you are a high school or post high school student interested in joining the United States Military, you will first have to take the military version of an entrance exam. The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, also known as the ASVAB. This exam will test your math skills among other topics. The kicker, you are NOT allowed to use a calculator

What? No Calculator?

Many potential recruits are thrown off by this concept. Living in today’s modern age, where everything is a smart-phone app or computer click away, the idea of doing math without a calculator may seem preposterous

But in fact, this is a genius step on behalf on the military testers. You see, they are not looking to see if you can regurgitate information you have learned over the course of your high school and perhaps college schooling. Instead they are trying to test the knowledge, comprehension, and inference skills you have picked up along the way

In the military, they are not interested if you can push a few buttons to get a response. Instead they want to see if you can reason your way through a potentially simple, and even some difficult problems. For this reason, instead of providing complicated math questions that can be solved with the push of a button, they provide you with a mix of simple and complex math reasoning problems that require you to think and work out a strategy for solving each concept

How This Helps You

If you are a dedicated student, motivated to achieve your military career dreams, then you will likely prepare for the non-calculator style ASVAB questions. You are reading this after all, aren’t you?

In your preparation you should plan to do many practice problems similar to those you will be tested on during the actual ASVAB exam. In studying these problems you should learn, not only how each question type can be solved, but also a good non-calculator approach

The more practice problems you try, the more concepts you will learn. Over time you will start to develop a strategy that will help you circumvent the electronic solution requirement, and instead give you the skills an confidence to tackle any math problem the military can throw your way. But not only will this practice style help you with your math skills, you may find that this style of studying also helps improve your score in the other tested areas as well. After all, who says developing a critical and analytical mind is only limited to one section?

Source by Leah M Fisch

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Oracle Exam 1Z0-147 Is Being Retired: What Does That Mean to Me?

Oracle Certification announced the retirement of several exams on March 13, including 1Z0-147: Program with PL/SQL. This exam satisfies the PL/SQL component to become a Oracle PL/SQL Developer Certified Associate. Originally developed while Oracle 9i was the current database release, there has been speculation for some time that this exam would be retired. As of the announcement, the exam will no longer be available after July 31, 2013. Oracle professionals that are pursuing the PL/SQL development path have been asking what effect this retirement will have on the process of getting the PL/SQL OCA certification. The impact of the announcement and what actions you should take depend on what stage of the PL/SQL certification process you are in.

  • If you have passed 1Z0-147 — For people who have already passed the test, the exam retirement means nothing at all. Oracle certifications and exam results do not change when an exam is retired. The only people affected by the retirement are those who have not yet taken it. After the cut-off date, it will no longer be possible to schedule the exam.
  • If you are currently preparing for 1Z0-147 — If you are currently in the process of studying for this exam, and are nearly ready to take it, then you should complete your preparation and schedule the exam. Do not wait until the last minute. You want to leave enough time to retake it if you do not pass on the first attempt. Once the deadline has passed, you will not be able to schedule the exam for any reason. If you are preparing for the exam, but have just started, you might consider the next option.
  • If you have not begun preparing yet — If you are planning to take the 1Z0-147 exam, but have not begun to prepare for it at this time, I would recommend that you pursue the replacement exam, 1Z0-144: Oracle Database 11g: Program with PL/SQL. The two exams have the same purpose and passing either in conjunction with a SQL exam will grant you the PL/SQL OCA. The 1Z0-144 exam will not be retired for many years, so you will have plenty of time to prepare for it.

1Z0-147 and 1Z0-144 have a significant percentage of common topics. However, 1Z0-144 has been considerably rewritten. The exam contains new features that were added to the PL/SQL engine in Oracle 10G and 11G. However, the exam has also added a significant number of topics for core PL/SQL skills. Most of these arguably should have been included as part of 1Z0-147. I have researched both tests in-depth and I firmly believe that 1Z0-144 is the better of the two by far. The retirement of 1Z0-147 is long overdue.

Source by Matthew R Morris

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