Month: August 2017

Top 5 Cheap Labor Day Destinations in 2017

The three-day weekend is always sufficient to take off from all the monotony of the life and break out from the stress of work and other day-to-day activities while living your heart out and discovering the new colors of the world and when the Labor Day is the occasion, the opportunities to explore are much more than usual. A time when cities across the world are getting prepared for the big tourism season and overcoming the off-season of hot and humidity, Labor Day is a perfect opportunity to get delighted by the splendid array of picturesque cities you have in your travel bucket list. Luckily for you, we have come up with a list of top 5 cheap destinations to enjoy Labor Day in 2017 and have the best time soaking the most amazing essence of traveling whilst saving huge on air travel and hotels. So, if you are ready to take that leap and witness the charm of the world, then here are the places that can win you over to plan a perfect vacation this Labor Day:

1. Seattle

Seattle have always been one of the most demanding getaway destinations where you can enjoy the opulence of a metropolitan city, striking natural bliss in the outskirts, enthralling weather conditions and paramount range of cultural, natural, historical and lifestyle attractions. Although, when it comes to Labor Day weekend getaway, people love to have a vacation in Seattle to explore the mind-blowing array of picturesque places and magnificent range of natural landscapes including mountains, waterbodies and forests. Labor Day in Seattle have been quite an amazing experience as people love to enjoy concerts, parades, fireworks and much more whilst welcoming the city’s guests with great hospitality and pocket-friendly accommodation.

2. San Francisco

Visiting San Francisco during the Labor Day weekend is a complete different experience as the City by the Bay gives the most incredible view of the bay as well as the cityscape from the surrounding highlands and plains right before the notorious season of fog and mist takes over and disrupt the entire view of the natural and man-made surroundings of San Francisco. Besides, the cultural events available during the Labor Day in San Francisco are really delightful and enjoyable for a perfect weekend, filled with fun, excitement, adventure and loads of laid-back experiences. Besides, the shoulder season leave the hotel providers in the condition to provide cheap accommodation options to keep their properties occupied by the guests from across the world.

3. Orlando

When it comes to Orlando, there is no bad time to visit and every season or day is perfect to visit the theme park capital of the world. At the time of Labor Day, people planning their family vacation on an extended weekend can enjoy their heart out whilst visiting some of the most picturesque and adventurous theme parks available in Orlando. Like any other city in the America, Orlando too offer some of the most competitive prices on hotel accommodations to have the most spectacular experience at a pocket-friendly price. Bring your toddlers as well as other members of your family to Orlando and have an extended weekend filled with ample fun, adventure and theme-based excitement.

4. New York City

New York is probably in the list of everyone wish to travel around the world and when you are planning on a voyage on the long weekend of Labor Day, then you should consider New York City for a seamless and affordable vacation. Although, finding budget accommodation in the New York City is really hard, but when you know the perfect opportunity, you can get the finest and most affordable hotel deals online. NYC celebrates the Labor Day with great pomp and show with many events and galas that are really astonishing plus you can explore the most prominent attractions of NYC in the extended weekend when locals are heading towards other destinations and leaving those landmarks stranded for people like you.

5. London

For those who wish to fly away to some international destination on this Labor Day, visiting London can be the most delightful experience for you. On the occasion of Labor Day many airlines and travel agencies offer affordable transatlantic flights to give a 3-day weekend trip to the most spellbinding European cities. No matter whether you like nature, culture, lifestyle, shopping, food or any other aspect of traveling, London will always offer you the most scenic experience of discovering the United Kingdom. Besides, the weather conditions and affordable hotels will give you the perfect chance to make an international vacation without putting a big hole in your budget.

There are a big number of websites, articles, blogs and images suggesting you many more cities that can be best suitable for your Labor Day weekend escape, but if you like to have the best dish in your plate every time you sit on the dining table, then you can completely connect with the list mentioned above as these places are some of the finest and have been on the travel bucket list for most of the aspiring travelers worldwide. So, if you like to enjoy traveling and have this urge of breaking-out of the boring daily life, then all you have to do is find a best suitable travel agency, offering Labor Day flight discounts and you can save even more.



Source by Rajni Devi

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British-Jamaican Marilyn Neufville: Youthfullness, Sprint World Records, Controversy, and Injuries

Introduction

As an elite black Jamaican athlete in the United Kingdom during the tumultuous years of racism and black power movements during the 1960’s and 1970’s, controversy would swirl around slender Marilyn Fay Neufville.

A south London resident who had migrated from Jamaica when she was eight years old, and even competed for Britain internationally, she had “defied British officials and missed a meet against East Germany in order to train with the Jamaican team” (Associated Press: 1970). Neufville had ran for the Cambridge Harriers of southeast London during her teens after she had arrived in Britain in 1961 when she was 8 years old. Four months before the summer Commonwealth Games of 1970, Neufville had represented Britain and won the 400m title for Britain. She was born in Hectors River in Portland (Jamaica) on November 16th 1952. She started as a short-distance sprinter, and it was at the end of 1969, that she started concentrating on the 400m.

1967

Neufville first became significantly recognized at national level when in 1967 she won two Amateur Athletic Association of England sprint titles in the under-15 group: the 100 and 150 yards (in 17.3 seconds).

1968

Again as a junior, in 1968, she won in the 220 yards in the Amateur Athletic Association under-17 group in 23.9 seconds–a new national record in this category. The Amateur Athletic Association, reputably the oldest athletics’ national governing body in the world, was established in April 1880. The championships are regarded as the British National Championships, though they have been open to foreign competitors.

1969

As an intermediate (under-17), Neufville won the English Schools Championships title in the 150 yards, improving her personal best to 16.6 seconds in Shrewsbury. She would progress to the women’s Amateur Athletic Association championships in 1969 and was just beaten into second place (24.3) by 28 year-old legendary Dorothy Hyman (23.7) in the 200m; Val Peat, the previous champion, won the bronze medal (24.3). Hyman, a multiple medallist at the European Games, Commonwealth Games, and the Olympics is regarded as Britain’s greatest sprinter.

During 1969, 16 year-old Neufville was ranked 27th in the 400m in the world, courtesy of her personal best (54.2) executed in London on October 9th. Earlier, on August 23rd 1969, running for the track team Cambridge Harriers, Neufville ran a 54.4 in the 400m which time still places her among the top ten British youngsters among the under-17 group. In September, Neufville was part of the winning 4x400m relay team that won in the track meet versus West Germany in Hamburg. Also on September 6th 1969, she won the 300m in London, in 38.3 seconds. This time is still listed as among the best among United Kingdom youngsters under 17 years of age.

1970 and the Commonwealth of Nations’ Games in Edinburgh

As a British runner, Marilyn’s personal outdoor best in the 400m would become 52.6 achieved when she won The Internationales Stadionfest 400m title in 1970. Here, in Berlin, she smashed the British record. The silver and bronze medallists were West Germans Christel Frese (54.3) and Inge Eckhoff (54.5). Neufville’s personal best indoors was her 53.01 world record breaking and winning performance that is mentioned below.

At the 1970 European Athletics Indoor Championships held in Vienna (March 14th to 15th), Neufville, representing Great Britain, won impressively in the 400m (53.01). This, established on March 14th, was a new indoor world record; a timing more than a second below her previous personal best (54.2). The silver medallist was Christel Frese of West Germany (53.1), followed by the previous (1968) Olympic gold medallist Colette Besson of France (53.6). The indoor record would be reduced by Nadezhda Ilyina (Nadezhda Kolesnikova-Ilyina) of the Soviet Union, in 1974.

On May 17th 1970, Neufville participated in the Britain vs. Netherlands Women’s meet in Sparta Stadium. In the 200 meters W. Van den Berg of the Netherlands won (23.7), Neufville was second (23.8), and M. Cobb also of Britain was third (24.1). As for the 4x400m relay, Marilyn ran the last leg flawlessly with ease, and the British (3:45.1) beat Netherlands (3:50.8).

Also early in 1970, Neufville won the 400m title in the British Amateur Athletic Association indoor championships in 54.9 seconds, establishing a new national record. Jannette Champion (56.5) was second, and Avril Beattie (57.1) won the bronze medal. Neufville would participate in the same championships during the next year 1971, but this time representing Jamaica. This time the winner was Champion (now Jannette Roscoe) in 56.1, Marilyn was second (57.3), and Maureen Tranter of Britain (57.5) was third.

Still in 1970, Marilyn Fay was a notable fixture at the South of England Championships that were held in London. Here, she won the 200m and 400m in 23.9 and 52.0 seconds, respectively–both new records in the annual event. She would return to the Championships the next year 1971 as a Jamaican, and would retain the 200m title, winning in 24.2 again in London.

On July 23rd at the Commonwealth Games, the 17 year-old long-legged and slim Neufville established a new 400m world record of 51.02, and then the next day at a press conference refused to comment on the accomplishment in which she had just lowered the record, that had been jointly held by the French women Colette Besson and Nicole Duclos (set in Athens in 1969), by a massive seven-tenths of a second. The 51.02 would endure as Neufville’s personal best. Neufville had won by a full twenty seconds ahead of the runner-up Sandra Brown of Australia (53.66), in a time one second faster than she had ever ran in the event! The performance was the day’s highlight at the Commonwealth Games. Judith Ayaa of Uganda was third (53.77).

On July 24th, “at a bizarre news conference,” Neufville, “… sat with her Jamaican team manager, Norman Hill… and just silently shook her head at every question” (Associated Press: 1970). In the extraordinary scene, Hill had brought her into the room that was lined with forty newsmen and ushered her into the reserved seat of honor, and then declared that she was not going to answer to any questions and comments. As for her silent passive response, the manager Hill explained that Neufville was warily tense about uttering anything that would possibly jeopardize her future in athletics. Indeed she had ran for Jamaica, though she had formerly ran for Britain to which she was tied under the international rules of athletics.

Would Neufville be in trouble with the British Amateur Athletic Association for which she had competed in world events? She had been allowed by the Association to tour Europe with the Jamaican team, as long as she would return and be part of Britain’s team to be pitted against East Germany. Neufville defiantly stayed with Jamaicans, she did not show up for the European track meet executed two weeks earlier. Hill was even evasive in replying about whether Marilyn Fay, in maintaining silence, was protesting British officials’ attitude. Marilyn would later compete in the 4x100m relay: the Jamaican team finished fifth.

Though the Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, right in the United Kingdom, “Neufville was not jeered or beaten, though her preference for representing Jamaica while she was a resident in London angered many, especially as many [blacks] sought… British [sports] titles but were prevented from doing so by a rule that specified that a… contestant ‘has been resident in the United Kingdom for a period of not less than ten years'” (Cashmore 2010: 242).

It would take two years for Marilyn’s world record to be equaled–Monica Zehrt of GDR on July 4th 1972 in Paris. It would be nearly exactly four years later (July 22nd 1974 in Warsaw) that superwoman Irena Szewinska of Poland broke Neufville’s world record, down by more than a second (49.9) and the first ever below 50 seconds.

Near the end of July 1970, about a month after her Commonwealth triumph in Edinburgh, British track officials convinced that she was bent on competing for Jamaica, declared that they would not include Neufville on the British team that would soon participate in the European Cup competition. They would not object to Neufville’s defection to Jamaica, but would defer the matter to the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) for approval. Neufville even nursed the option of studying at an American college. After he Commonwealth performance, there was jubilation in Jamaica, she was officially congratulated by Prime Minister Hugh Shearer and also accorded a civic reception in her home parish Portland on the north coast of Jamaica. Neufville left Jamaica for London in late August, only days before her athletics’ national affiliation and situation would be decided by the International Amateur Athletic Commission in Stockholm. It would be decided that international athletes could henceforth be able to switch from one country after one year after competing, instead of every three years.

1971

In Toronto, on February 5th 1971, Neufville won in the 300 yards (35.7).

At the 1971 Central American and Caribbean Championships held during mid-July in Kingston, Marilyn Fay won in the 400m and established a course record (53.5). She was followed by Carmen Trustee of Cuba (54.0) and the bronze was captured by Yvonne Saunders of Jamaica (54.3). Neufville was also part of the Jamaica 4x400m relay team that won the silver medal (3:41.0), behind gold medallists Cuba (3:38.6, a new course record), and ahead of bronze medallists Trinidad and Tobago (4:03.2).

Only weeks later, on August 3rd, Neufville won a gold medal at the 1971 sixth Pan-African Games (held from late July to early August in Cali in Colombia) in the 400m–the first time the event was contested at these Games. Her winning time was 52.34 (51.34?), and the team-mate Yvonne Saunders was third (53.13). The two were also part of the Jamaica 4x400m relay team that also included Ruth Williams and Beverly Franklin and won the bronze medal (3:34.05). Jamaica was beaten by the United States (3:32.45) and silver medallists Cuba (3:34.04). Fay’s 400m performance in Cali was her personal best of 1971, and the second best in world annual ranking. Here in Cali, Carmen Trustee of Cuba finished second (52.8).

Neufville left Britain for Jamaica in July 1971, amidst the storm of controversy in which she claimed she had been mistreated and that she would therefore continue to run for Jamaica. She denied that she was leaving London because of racial prejudice. It was argued that under International Amateur Athletic Federation rules, Marilyn Fay would be eligible to compete for Jamaica in the forthcoming Olympics, but that she would not be eligible to under the International Olympics Committee rules.

From September 1971, she lived near Los Angeles with multi-world record-holder Chi Cheng (Chi Cheng Reel) of Taiwan and her husband and coach Vince Reel who also coached Neufville and was the coach at Claremont College.

1972 and the Olympics in Munich

The ninth annual Albuquerque Jaycees Invitational track meet was held in the middle of July 1972. Here Carol Hudson, a native of Albuquerque, ably beat Marilyn Fay and also Karin Lundgren of Sweden in 600 yard run. Hudson’s performance was new American record (1:21.8)

On January 24th 1972, Neufville competed in an indoor track meet in Los Angeles, in the 600 yards. Unfortunately, she fell near the end of the race. She was visibly in great as she was helped up. With a severed tendon, she became scheduled to undergo an operation at Glendale Community Hospital. The officials were pessimistic about her chances at recovering quickly enough to compete in the forthcoming summer Olympics in Munich. The track doctor Jerome Bornstein said that it would depend on how significant the tear was. He said that if the tendon was badly severed, it would incapacitate Neufville for at least six months–a condition that would spoil her regimen of adequately building up for the Olympics.

She was helped to foot her medical bill: “World record holder Marilyn Neufville became the first claimant to receive payment for expenses caused by athletic injury under the Amateur Athletic Union’s optional athlete’s insurance program, which went into effect January 1… a total of $1000 has been sent to Ms. Neufville and Glendale Community Hospital… ” (Amateur Athletic Union of the United States 1972: 9).

It became doubtful that Neufville would participate in the Wills-Qantas Olympic fund-raising meetings that were scheduled for mid-March in Sydney, Adelaide, and Melbourne. She was to have been a feature attraction at the meets.

In the middle of July 1972, Neufville was listed in the 27-member track and field team that would represent Jamaica at the Olympics. There were still hopes that she would recover from the snapped Achilles tendon that had disabled her from competing since the fall in January. In the second week of August, it was declared that Marilyn Faye had not sufficiently recovered and so would not compete at the Olympics.

Monica Zehrt of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) had equaled the world record held by Neufville. The latter was injured and unable to compete at the Olympics in Munich in 1972, but 19 year-old Zehrt, “[seemingly] unaffected by the pressure of her opponents or by her role as favorite” (Wallechinsky 2000: 206), went on to win the gold in the event, setting a new Olympic record (51.08).

1973

In the middle of January 1973, in Winnipeg, 18 year-old Joanne McTaggert of Canada won in the 300m (40.2) in the first time she had competed in the distance. She beat the big names Yvonne Saunders, Kathy Hammond, and Neufville.

At the Sunkist International Invitational Indoor Track Meet in Los Angeles, Neufville and Chi Cheng Reel, running for the Los Angeles Track Club, were part of the sprint relay that won in 1:14.3.

At the end of January 1973 Neufville, again representing the Los Angeles Track Club in the Albuquerque Invitational Track and Field meet, won the 300 yard dash in 35.4 seconds.

On February 23rd 1973, the United States Indoor National Championships were held in Madison Square Garden in New York. Neufville, representing the Los Angeles Track Club, finished third in the 440 yards (56.2), behind Brenda Walsh of Canada (55.5), and Kathy Hammond of the Sacramento Road Runners (55.7).

In the first week of June, Neufville set a Kennedy Games record of 55.1, in winning.

Near the end of June 1973, at the Women’s Amateur Athletic Union meet held in Irvine in California, Neufville was beaten into second place in the 440 yards. She was second (54.5) and the winner was Olympian Mable Fergerson (54.1).

The Pacific International Games were held early in July 1973. in Victoria in Canada. The winner in the 400m was Charlene Rendina of Australia (52.4). Neufville disappointingly finished sixth.

On July 19th 1973, Neufville together with the other Jamaican world record hold Donald Quarrie were included on the Jamaica Amateur Athletic Association’s team scheduled to participate in the Central American and Caribbean Athletic Championships to be held during July 26th to 29th in Maracaibo in Venezuela. Injuries prevented Neufville from competing.

1974 and the Commonwealth of Nations’ Games in Christchurch

Marilyn Fay at 21, would travel to Christchurch in New Zealand to represent Jamaica at the Commonwealth of Nations’ Games in 1974. The injuries plagued her and she would only afford a sixth place finishing in the 400m (54.04). The gold medallist was her former team-mate Yvonne Saunders (51.67) who had become a naturalized Canadian, followed by Verona Bernard (51.94), and bronze medallist Charlene Rendina of Australia (52.08).

1975

As a University of California at Berkeley student, Neufville finished fourth in the 800 yards, in the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women Outdoor Championships.

1976 and the Olympics in Montreal

On July 25th 1976, 23 year-old Neufville competed for Jamaica in the 400m at the Olympics in Montreal. Here, in the third of the six heats of the first round and running in lane 3, she finished fourth (52.93) behind Ellen Strophal-Streidt of East Germany (52.56), Christiane Casapicola-Wildschek of Austria (52.65). and Judy Canty of Australia (52.88). Though Marilyn Fay qualified for the next round (quarter-finals) to take place in the evening, this would be the first and end of her Olympic presence as injuries discouraged her from competing any further. Still, the 52.93 was her personal best for 1976. This timing is the fourth personal best all-time performance among the 400m University of California at Berkeley (California Bears) women track stars. The time is also the oldest only 1970’s personal best timing that is among the top ten best in the quarter-mile sprint. The best California Bears’ personal bests were established by Latasha Gilliam (52.53, 1996), Alima Kamara (52.75, 2010), and Marian Franklin (52.90, 1980).

As a student competing for University of California at Berkeley, Neufville’s collegiate personal best was 54.08, also established in 1976. This timing is listed seventh among University of Califoria at Berkeley performances, behind Latasha Gilliam, Marian Franklin, Kim White, Chantal Reynolds, Connie Culbert, and Kelia Bolton. Marilyn attended the University of California at Berkeley between 1972 and 1983.

In Montreal in the Olympic finals of the 400m, 30 year-old Irena Szewinska-Kirszenstein of Poland, also an outstanding short-sprinter and long jumper as well as multiple Olympic gold medallist, established a world record (49.28), ten meters ahead of runner-up 18 year-old Christina Brehmer of East Germany (50.51), and 23 year-old Ellen Strophal-Streidt also of German Democratic Republic (50.55). In 1974, Irena Szewinska-Kirszenstein had become the first woman to officially run the distance in less than 50 seconds.

The Aftermath

Marilyn Neufville has for many years been employed as a social worker both in the United States and the United Kingdom. She has worked at Local Authority Social Services in London, in a mental health care division. In March 2013, 60 year-old Neufville filled a claim over unfair dismissal in 2010 by the Richmond Council in London (Bishop: 2013). Accused of mishandling a case that involved domestic violence, she had been fired.

In the United States, Neufville lived and worked in and around Haviland and Halstead in Kansas, Martinsville in Virginia, and in Ballwin and St. Charles in Missouri. She lived in Oakland while attending University of California at Berkeley. She was also affiliated with Tilastopaja Oy Athletics, St. Columbas School in Kilmacolm (Scotland), and the South England Athletic Association. After he win at the Commonwealth Games, national stamps with her image were issued.

Jamaica women’s 400m record, established by Lorraine Fenton on July 19th 2002 in Monaco, is now 49.30. Neufville is still the only Jamaican woman to have ever held a world record in outdoor athletics. From 1978 to 1982, Marita Koch of East Germany lowered the 400m world record six times, from 49.19 to 48.16 in Europe. Her dominance was interrupted by Jarmila Kratochvílová of Czechoslovakia who in August 1983, lowered it to 47.99 in Helsinki. At 1:53.28, Jarmila Kratochvílová still holds the 800m world record that was also established in 1983. The 400m world record (47.60) was re-established by Marita Koch in October 1985 in Canberra.

Neufville was officially listed as 5’5″ and 125 pounds. She did not have the commonly significant build of a sprinter, and her thinness made her prone to injuries. As a result she was unable to perform at many international competitions and her performance deteriorated. But she was perhaps Britain’s first elite black athlete.

Works Cited

Associated Press: “‘M’ Student Takes First,” (July 24, 1970) in “Michigan Daily.”

Amateur Athletic Union of the United States: Amateur Athletic Union News Volumes 43-46, 1972.

Bishop, Rachel. “Social worker claims unfair dismissal from Richmond Council,” (March 1, 2013) in “Richmond & Twickenham Times.”

Cashmore, Ellis. Making Sense of Sports. London: Routledge, 2010.

Wallechinsky, David. The Complete Book of the Olympics. London: Aurum Press, 2000.



Source by Jonathan Musere

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The History of Republic Airport

1. Farmingdale’s Aviation Origins:

Located in Farmingdale, Long Island, Republic Airport is an historically significant airfield to the region and the world, having played both military and civilian roles. But long before it became an airfield, it gave rise to the manufacturers that built airplanes.

“The Industrial Revolution and airplane manufacture came to Farmingdale during World War I when Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese established their pioneering factories in the community,” wrote Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (Arcadia Publishing, 2016, p. 9). “They were drawn by the presence of two branches of the Long Island Railroad… the nearby Route 24, which brought auto and truck traffic to and from the Fifty-Ninth Street Bridge in Manhattan; the level outwash plain, which provided land for flying fields; and the proximity to skilled workers… “

The area’s first aviation roots, however, were planted as far back as 1917. The Lawrence Sperry Airplane Company, incorporated that year with $50,000 of capital and located on Rose and Richard streets in the village of Farmingdale, produced its first aircraft in the form of the Messenger.

Designed by Alfred Verville of the US Army’s Engineering Division at McCook Field, the minuscule, 17.9-foot-long, all-wood biplane was intended for “aerial motorcycle” missions, alighting in small clearings to drop off and pick-up messages from field commanders, thus earning its name. Farmingdale’s aviation roots were equally cultivated by Sydney Breese, whose Breese Aircraft Company, located on Eastern Parkway, designed the Penguin. Resembling the Bleriot XI, the mid-wing airplane, powered by a two-cylinder, 28-hp, roughly-running Lawrence engine, was a non-flying, preflight trainer intended to aid US Army pilot transition from primary to operational types. Deployed on the open prairies of Texas, it sported a wingspan too short to produce lift, but allowed fledgling aviators to gain the feel of pre-departure aerodynamic forces on their horizontal tails. Of the 301 produced, only five were ever used for this purpose; the remainder were placed in storage.

2. Fairchild Aviation Corporation:

If Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese laid Farmingdale’s aviation foundation, then Sherman M. Fairchild cemented it.

Initially interested in aerial photography equipment, he founded the Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation in 1920, selling two such devices to the Army, and further developed the company into Fairchild Aerial Surveys to engage in map-making when he had received a contract for an additional 20.

Seeking to replace the myriad of airplane types he operated with a single, specifically- designed camera platform, Fairchild devised the required specifications for one, but could not locate a manufacturer able to build it at a reasonable cost. Forced to do so himself, he established his third aviation company, the Fairchild Aviation Corporation, and moved into the Sperry factory in South Farmingdale, vacated as a result of founder Sperry’s tragic death in December of 1923.

The high-wing, strut-braced, single-engine utility aircraft, designated FC-1 and first flying in prototype form in 1926, featured an enclosed and heated cabin to protect the pilot and his camera equipment, but its original OX-5 engine proved inadequate. Retrofitted with a higher-capacity Wright J-4, it was redesignated FC-1A.

The FC-2 production version, supported by wheels, floats, or skis, featured increased cabin volume. Powered by a 200-hp Wright J-5, the aircraft, intended for commercial operations, sported a 31-foot overall length and 44-foot wingspan. Accommodating a single pilot and four passengers, or up to 820 pounds of cargo, it had a 3,400-pound gross weight and could attain maximum, 122-mph speeds and operate 700-mile segments.

Demand at the South Farmingdale factory soon eclipsed capacity. After aerially surveying the region, Fairchild himself chose a 77,967-acre alternate on the south side of Route 24 and Conklin Street in East Farmingdale, a site which offered prevailing, South Shore winds and multiple-mode ground access by means of a railroad line and the major, Route 110 corridor, which would facilitate both personnel and raw material transport to the new field. Repackaged into airplanes, the latter could then fly out.

“The 77,967-acre Fairchild Flying Field was developed in the late winter and early spring of 1928 and was originally owned and operated by the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Manufacturing Company,” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society. “The first flights from (it) took place in (the) late spring of 1928 after the Fairchild Airplane and the Fairchild Engine factories were completed and aircraft were produced (there). Fairchild built Model 41, 41A, 42, 21, 100, and 150 airplanes… “

Wings, like those of the Hempstead Plains to the west, once again rose from the farm fields of Long Island, built, propelled, and supported, respectively, by the Fairchild Airplane Factory, the Fairchild Engine Factory, and the Fairchild Flying Field, after Faircam Realty, Inc., purchased the land and its initial layout was established on November 3, 1927.

Although Fairchild produced multiple models at its new Long Island aviation center, its roots would quickly prove tenuous. Moving its headquarters to Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1931, after only three years, it vacated its facilities, which were almost immediately reoccupied by the American Corporation, or AVCO, whose Airplane and Engine divisions produced the Pilgrim 100 transport for American Airways. But the Depression, taking too large a bite out of the economy, severely diminished demand for it, since aircraft acquisitions were high on a company’s cost reduction list, and its presence proved shorter than Fairchild’s. By mid-1932, it had equally disappeared.

3. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation:

Initially located in Valley Stream, where it designed floats, the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation moved further east, to the Fairchild Flying Field, and took up residence in the former Fulton Truck Factory, where it hatched its first production fighter, the FF-1. Powered by a single, 750-hp Wright engine, the biplane, with a retractable undercarriage, was also offered in scout configuration, as the SF-1.

The most significant aircraft to emerge from the East Farmingdale production line, however, was the Duck. Tracing its origins to the Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corporation’s XO2L-1, it had been submitted to the US Navy in 1931, but, since Loening himself lacked the required facilities to build it, he turned to Leroy Grumman, his former colleague, who re-submitted it in modified form. Accepted on April 25, 1933, the biplane, called XJF-1, was powered by a 700-hp Twin Wasp engine, which drove a three-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller. Its bracing, consisting of one set of struts outboard of the fuselage and a second one, of wires, between the two wings, was minimal for its day. Water operations were supported by a centerline, under-fuselage float, into which the undercarriage retracted.

In all, 632 JF and J2F Ducks were produced, pressed into global, multiple-role service.

Although Grumman’s Farmingdale presence exceeded that of all others, it nevertheless ended after a half-decade, in 1937, when it relocated to larger headquarters in Bethpage, Long Island.

4. Seversky Aircraft Corporation:

Seversky Aircraft Corporation next took center stage in Farmingdale when it relocated there from College Point in Queens, occupying the former American Corporation factory.

A decorated World War I ace, Alexander P. de Seversky, like Igor Sikorsky, immigrated to the US from Russia, and in 1923, developed the first gyroscopically-stabilized bombsight at the Sperry Gyroscope Company, before establishing his own Seversky Aero Corporation, which focused on aircraft instruments and parts.

Injected with fresh capital, it initially occupied the EDO Corporation’s floatplane factory.

His first major design, the SEV-3, was both aerodynamically sleek and progressive, reflecting Seversky’s aviation-intuitive nature. Powered by a single, 420-hp, nose-mounted, Wright J-6 Whirlwind engine, the all-metal, low-wing aircraft, accommodating a pilot and two passengers in sliding, tandem canopied cockpits, was either supported by a wheeled undercarriage or floats, and in 1933 established a world speed record for piston amphibians. Two years later, on September 15, it sustained a 230-mph airspeed.

The foundation of many subsequent versions, which externally exhibited only minor variations over the basic design, it evolved into the next major iteration, the BT-8. As the first all-metal, enclosed cockpit design operated by the US Army Air Corps, it featured a 24.4-foot length and 36-foot wingspan. Powered by the 400-hp Pratt and Whitney R-985-11, the 4,050-pound airplane, accommodating two, had a 175-mph maximum speed. Thirty were built. It led to the definitive version.

Originally occupying Hangar 2 on New Highway and today used by the American Airpower Museum, Seversky Aircraft Corporation took over the Grumman factory in 1937 when it had relocated to Bethpage, thus maintaining two facilities. But, echoing the short history of the East Farmingdale airfield’s tenants, it came to an abrupt end: although Seversky, like many other aviation-minded “geniuses,” possessed the necessary design skills to create progressive airplanes, he lacked the necessary managerial flip-side of the equation needed to devise a proper, and profitable, business plan to market them, resulting in a $550,000 loss by April of 1939. While conducting a European sales tour six months later, on October 13, he was ousted by his own board of directors, who voted for his removal from the very company he had founded.

Reorganized, it was rebranded “Republic Aviation Corporation.”

5. Republic Aviation Corporation:

Fairchild Flying Field’s fortune was about to change. Fueled by World War II, the fledgling Republic Aviation Corporation would explode in size and its roots would become so deeply implanted in Farmingdale soil that it would be decades before they could be unearthed.

Instrumental in that war was the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.

Succeeding the Seversky P-35, it was the result of Army Air Corps requirements, which included a 400-mph airspeed, a 25,000-foot service ceiling, at least six.50-caliber machine guns, armor plating protection, self-sealing fuel tanks, and a minimum fuel capacity of 315 gallons.

The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, which dwarfed all other aircraft, was the world’s largest, heaviest, single-engine, single-seat strategic World War II fighter, offering unequaled dive speeds.

War-fed growth of the officially-renamed “Republic Airport” resulted in the expansion of the company’s existing factory on the south side of Conklin Street, as well as the construction of three additional buildings, the installation of a control tower, and the lengthening of its existing runways, all in an effort to support P-47 production, which totaled 9,087 units in Farmingdale alone and required a work force of 24,000 to accomplish by 1944. Employees filtered in by the thousands every day. A round-the-clock production line spat a completed aircraft out of the factory every hour, and these were then ferried by the Women Air Force Service Pilots, or WASPs. Republic Aviation, one of the country’s primary defense arteries, pumped man-and-machine into the agricultural plains of Farmingdale and transformed them into an arsenal of democracy within an 18-month period.

“By 1945, Republic was contributing more than 30 percent of the Army Air Force fighters to the war effort against the Luftwaffe in the skies of Europe,” wrote Leroy E. Douglas in his “Conklin Street Cut-Off” article published in the September 1984 issue of Long Island Forum (p. 182). “Thus, Republic, Ranger, and its 23,000 plus workers-more than half of whom were women-did their part to win the war.”

When World War II’s doors closed, so, too, did those of the Thunderbolt factory, and Republic was forced to diversify its product range in terms of purpose and powerplant, converting military Douglas C-54 Skymasters into commercial DC-4 airliners, producing 1,059 civilian Seabee amphibian aircraft, and attempting to design a passenger transport of its own.

The resultant aircraft, the Republic XF-12 Rainbow–along with the competing, and identically-powered, Hughes XF-11–both received a contract for two.

Emulating the graceful lines of the Lockheed Constellation, the Rainbow, featuring a 93.9-foot overall length and incorporating design experience amassed during Republic’s fighter aircraft development, exuded an appearance quintessentially captured by Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine when it reported, “The sharp nose and cylindrical cigar shape of the XF-12 fulfills a designer’s dream of a no-compromise design with aerodynamic considerations.”

Peace proved the aircraft’s enemy. The close of World War II obviated its (and the comparable Hughes XF-11’s) need. Nevertheless, because of its long-range, high-speed and -altitude, day and night, limited-visibility photo-reconnaissance capability, it was ideal as a territory-mapping platform. Indeed, on September 1, 1948, the second of only two aircraft built photographed its transcontinental flight path from the Air Force Flight Test Center in Muroc, California, to Mitchell Field in Garden City, Long Island, during Operation Birds Eye.

Returning to its military roots, Republic entered the pure-jet era with a P-47 Thunderbolt successor.

Featuring a 37.5-foot length, the design, conceived shortly before the end of the war in 1944, retained the straight wings associated with propeller airplanes. These spanned 36.5 feet.

First flying on February 28, 1946, the 19,689-pound fighter-bomber, designated F-84 Thunderjet and able to climb at 4,210-fpm, established a national speed record of 611 mph, as powered by the 3,750-thrust-pound J35-GE-7. Its range was 1,282 miles and its service ceiling was 40,750 feet. Its production totaled 4,455 units.

Development of its successor began in 1949. Because of an Air Force funding shortage, Republic reduced development costs by retaining commonality, to the tune of 60 percent, with the F-84, but introduced swept wings. The aircraft, powered by a 4,200 thrust-pound Allison XJ35-A-25 engine and initially designated YF-96A, first flew on June 3 of the following year, three months before it was renamed F-84F Thunderstreak.

Korean War-sparked fund increases enabled Republic to complete a second prototype, which first flew on February 14, 1951 with a YJ65-W-1 engine, and it was followed by the first production example, which took to the skies on November 22, 1952. The type was deployed by NATO countries during the Cold War.

F-84F Thunderstreak production totaled 2,713 airplanes.

Nevertheless, Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas summarized Republic-based aircraft manufacturing by stating in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (pp. 7-8). “While aviation started in Farmingdale with cloth-covered triplanes and biplanes and prop engines, after World War II Republic helped moved the United States into the jet age with the F-84 and F-84F, which assisted US forces in Korea and NATO nations in the 1950s.”

6. Fairchild Republic Corporation

Although Fairchild departed the very airport it had created in 1931, that absence was short-lived. Reappearing three years later, it took up residence in its former engine factory as the newly formed Ranger Aircraft and Engine Corporation and remained there until 1948. But, for a second time, history was to come full cycle.

Acquiring Hiller Helicopters nine years later, it became Fairchild Hiller, and in July of 1965, it purchased the majority of Republic stock, resulting in the Republic Aviation Division of Fairchild Hiller. Fairchild had thus returned to the soil in which it had planted its first seeds. In 1971, it continued its buying spree, purchasing Swearingen and producing and marketing the 19-passenger, twin-turboprop Fairchild-Swearingen Metro commuter airliner. The following year, the company adopted the official title of “Fairchild Republic.”

Its principle design, conceptualized before the Republic acquisition, was given birth by the Air Force requirement for a close air support aircraft incorporating simplicity, ease of maintenance, and short-field performance, in order to operate from small forward air bases close to the battle line.

Designated A-10 Thunderbolt II and enjoying a production run of 733, it was instrumental in the Gulf War and during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

7. Post-War Manufacturing:

Although Republic Airport and its aviation companies had been associated with mostly-military aircraft design and manufacture, several diverse commercial and space components also emerged from its doors.

Integral to the Boeing 747, for instance, were the leading edge slats, trailing edge flaps, spoilers, and ailerons built by the Republic Aviation division of Fairchild Hiller, while it was also contracted to provide a similar role in its proposed, but canceled, supersonic 2707 airliner.

Equally integral to the Space Shuttle were the Fairchild Republic components manufactured in Farmingdale.

After awarded a $13 million contract by Rockwell International of Los Angeles on March 29, 1973, Fairchild Hiller designed and developed six aluminum vertical tail stabilizers, which sported 45-degree leading edges and measured 27 feet high by 22 feet long, in Hangar 17, along with their associated rudders and speedbrakes. The first, installed on test vehicle Enterprise, facilitated its atmospheric launch from a piggy-backed 747 platform over Edwards Air Force Base on February 18, 1977, while the others were mounted on Space Shuttles Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor.

Expanding the commuter airliner involvement initiated with the Swearingen Metro, Fairchild Republic signed an agreement with Saab-Scania of Sweden on January 25, 1980 to launch the SF-340, in what became the first fully collaborative venture between a US and European aviation manufacturer. Fairchild Republic was contracted to design and build its wings, engine nacelles, and vertical and horizontal tail surfaces, with final assembly occurring in Sweden.

Fairchild Swearingen was assigned North American marketing responsibility, while a jointly owned Swedish company, Saab-Fairchild HB, established an office in Paris to fulfill this function elsewhere.

Powered by twin turboprop engines, the aircraft accommodated 34 passengers in a four-abreast configuration with a central aisle.

After completing some 100 wing sets, however, Fairchild terminated its contract work on the regional airliner, withdrawing from all civil projects, and the aircraft was redesignated the Saab 340.

8. Changing Roles:

Passed the ownership torch on March 31, 1969, Republic Airport was thereinafter operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), which continued to transform it into a public-use entity by acquiring 94 adjacent acres from the US government and purchasing an additional 115 privately owned ones to the south and southwest.

“The Metropolitan Transportation Authority took title to Republic Airport as a first step in converting it into a general aviation (field),” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society.

Initiating a modernization program, it made several improvements. High-intensity lights were installed on 5,516-foot Runway 1-19 and 6,827-foot Runway 14-32, for example, the latter of which was also equipped with an instrument landing system (ILS). The Fulton Truck Factory, the airport’s original structure dating from 1916, was razed, while Flightways transformed a ten-acre site on the north side of Route 109 into a complex of new hangars, administration buildings, fuel storage tanks, and aircraft tie-downs. A dual-level Administration, Terminal, and Maintenance building opened in 1983, not far from, and shortly before, the operational phase-in of a 100-foot, $2.2 million FAA control tower.

In order to promote economic development of the surrounding region, New York State legislature transferred ownership, for a third time, to the New York State Department of Transportation (DOT) on April 1, 1983, which was advised by a nine-member Republic Airport Commission. It hardly curtailed the modernization momentum.

Indeed, eight years later, a $3.5 million, 25,600-square-foot Grumman Corporate Hangar, replacing the aircraft storage facility previously maintained at its now-closed Bethpage airfield and housing a Beechcraft King Air, a Gulfstream I, and two British Aerospace BAe-125-800s, opened.

In April of 1993, ground was broken for a $3.3 million, 20,000-square-foot SUNY Farmingdale Aerospace Education Center on the east side of Route 110.

Million Air, a subsidiary of Executive Air Support, constructed an 11,700-square-foot Executive Air Terminal and corporate hangar on the airport’s south end, and, by 2001, Air East commenced operations in its own, new, radiant-heated, 10,000-square-foot hangar, which also featured a 2,500-square-foot shop and 4,500-square-foot office and flight school. Yet another hangar-and-office complex, located in the Lambert area, opened its doors in June of 2005 when Talon Air, a charter company, began operations from it.

In order to provide increased clearance needed by the latest-generation of business jets, such as the Gulfstream V and the Bombardier Global Express, taxiway B (bravo) was relocated.

Indeed, more than $18 million in capital improvements were made since 2000 alone.

These enhancements, provisioning the airport for its new, general aviation role, had perhaps been a premonition of things to come.

In 1982, Fairchild Republic won a contract to build two new-generation Air Force T-46A training jets; but, the milestone, initially envisioned as a monetary lifeline, only provided the reverse effect: although the prototype was first rolled out three years later, it lacked some 1,200 parts, and although the second made a successful, 24-minute maiden flight in July of 1986, the contract for the program, fraught with controversy, was canceled, resulting in the layoffs of 500 employees.

Like so many companies dependent upon military contracts for survival, Fairchild Republic, without choice, ceased to exist the following year, leaving its sprouting factories and a legacy, which had begun six decades earlier. Ironically, the two names which had been the most instrumental in the airport’s beginning and growth-Fairchild and Republic-were the same two which had been involved in its demise. The doors of the Farmingdale airfield’s primarily-military aircraft manufacturing and testing chapter thus closed, and those to its general aviation one opened.

“With the company experiencing major financial problems in 1986-1987 and with the loss of support for the T-46A program in Congress, Fairchild terminated both the SF-340 and T-46A production after building only four aircraft,” according to Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (p. 99). “Thus, by the fall of 1987, seventy years of airplane manufacturing in Farmingdale ended with employment and economic loss to the community and the New York metropolitan area.”

9. Airline Service:

In 1966, a year after ownership of Republic Airport was transferred from Fairchild Hiller to Farmingdale Corporation, it was officially designated a general aviation (civil) facility, fielding its first landing, of a twin-engine Beechcraft operated by Ramey Air Service from Islip, on December 7. In order to transform it into a gateway by facilitating airline connections at the three major New York airports, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority contracted with Air Spur to provide this feeder service four years later, assessing $12 one-way fares.

Although Republic was never envisioned as a major commercial airport, its central Long island location, proximity to the Route 110 corridor, and considerable infrastructure poised it for limited, scheduled and charter service to key business and leisure destinations within neighboring states. Yet its inherent operational limitation was succinctly stated in the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update.

“At Republic Airport,” it explained (Chapter 3, p. 8), “the New York State Department of Transportation implemented an aircraft weight limitation of 60,000 pounds in 1984. This weight limitation restricts the operation of aircraft over 60,000 pounds actual gross weight without the written consent of the airport operator.”

“Forecasts indicate that there will be an increase in the number of jet aircraft based at Republic Airport,” the Master Plan Update stated, “as well as an increase in jet operations,” as ultimately proven by annual pure-jet operation statistics: 2,792 in fiscal year 1986, 4,056 in 1990, 4,976 in 1995, and 6,916 in 1998. And, of its average annual number of based aircraft-about 500-this segment was also the fastest growing: 10 jet aircraft in 1985, 15 in 1995, and 20 in 1998. That number has since more than doubled.

One of the first scheduled airline attempts was made in 1978 when Cosmopolitan Airlines, operating an ex-Finnair Convair CV-340 and two ex-Swissair CV-440 Metropolitans in single-class, four-abreast, configurations, offered all-inclusive, single-day, scheduled charter packages to Atlantic City from its Cosmopolitan Sky Center. Its flyer had advised: “Fly to Atlantic City for only $19.95 net. Here’s how it works: Pay $44.95 for a round-trip flight ticket to Atlantic City, including ground transportation to and from the Claridge Hotel and Casino. Upon arrival at the Claridge, you’ll receive $20.00 in food and beverage credits good at any restaurant except the London Pavilion. You will also receive a $5.00 flight credit good for your next fight to the Claridge on Cosmopolitan Airlines.”

The carrier also briefly attempted to offer two daily scheduled round-trips to Boston on its 52-passenger CV-440s in 1980.

Facilitating this scheduled service growth was the construction of a passenger terminal.

“The terminal building, completed in 1983, has approximately 50,000 square feet of useable floor space and houses airport service vehicles, maintenance, fire protection, public terminal space, and rental areas on the first floor, plus administration offices on the second floor. Approximately 70 employees work in the building,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 17).

Attempting to establish a link between Farmingdale and the major New York metropolitan airport of Newark International in order to feed its departures, PBA Provincetown Boston Airline commenced shuttle service with Cessna C-402 commuter aircraft, connecting Long Island by means of a 30-minute aerial hop with up to five daily round-trips and coordinating schedules with PEOPLExpress Airlines. It advertised avoidance of the excessive drive-times, parking costs, and longer check-in requirements otherwise associated with larger-airport usage, and offered the convenience of through-fares, ticketing, and baggage check to any PEOPLExpress final destination.

According to its June 20, 1986 Northern System timetable, it offered Farmingdale departures at 0700, 0950, 1200, 1445, and 1755.

Demand soon necessitated replacement of the C-402 with a larger, 19-seat Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante.

All of these brief, unsuccessful scheduled attempts, nullifying local residents’ ill-founded concern that Republic would ultimately develop into a major commercial airport and inflict its noise on close-proximity ears, failed to attract the needed traffic to render them self-supporting, emphasizing several airport-specific factors.

1). Republic was consistently associated with general, and not scheduled, operations during the latter part of its history.

2). Long Island MacArthur had already established itself as the island’s principle commercial facility, and carriers, as demonstrated by Precision/Northwest Airlink, gained no revenue advantage by diluting the same market, yet incurring increased airport and operational costs to do so.

“Republic Airport has had service by various commuter airlines and each has ceased service… ,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update. “The commuter service market area is limited, geographically, taking into account the larger airports, such as La Guardia, Kennedy, and MacArthur and the service they offer.”

“Since 1969, Republic Airport has accommodated the region’s need for an airport devoted to private and business aircraft, as well as charter and commuter operations,” it also stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Because Republic is situated in the midst of residential, commercial, and industrial development, its role is inconsistent with that of a scheduled air carrier airport for commercial jet transport.”

With the number of annual passengers having consistently increased-from 13,748 in 1985 and 30,564 in 1990 to 33,854 in 1995-its future commuter role could not be entirely ruled out.

“While past efforts by commuter airlines have not been successful, the potential for future service exists and is to be considered in the planning for the airport,” it concluded (Chapter 2, p. 10).

10. The Future:

Unlike Roosevelt and Glenn Curtiss fields, which succumbed to modern-era pressures and swapped their runways for shopping malls, 526-acre Republic only surrendered a small portion of itself to the Airport Plaza Shopping Center. Instrumental in early-aviation development and in the Korean, Vietnam, Gulf, and Iraq wars, it transformed itself into a general aviation facility, peaking with 546-based aircraft and becoming the third-largest New York airport in terms of movements after JFK International and La Guardia.

Billing itself as “the corporate airbridge for Long Island’s 21st-century economy,” this westernmost Long Island general aviation facility accounts for 1,370 jobs and $139.6 million of economic activity, supporting 60 on-airport businesses. The 110,974 movements recorded in 2008 encompassed 52 by non-rigid airships, 7,120 by rotary wing, 76,236 by single-engine pistons, 6,310 by twin-engine pistons, 5,028 by turboprops, and 16,228 by pure-jets. The latter, its second-highest total, emphasizes its increasing role as the “Teterboro of Long Island,” perhaps pointing the way to its future. Indeed, companies considering the area for their corporate locations cite the airport as a major asset, since it provides close-proximity aerial access for personnel and materials.

Toward that end, the State of New York approved funding in April of 2009 for a Vision Planning process to collect data from residents, employees, businesses, and users, and then plot its future course. Specifically, the program had a three-fold purpose-namely, to define the airport’s role, to determine how it will fill that role, and, finally, to ascertain how it will work with the community to attain the desired operational and economic goals.

“As part of the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS), Republic Airport is designated as a reliever airport with commercial service,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Under ownership by the New York State Department of Transportation, there are specific state development and policy procedures which are followed.”

Although it may never eclipse its current general aviation role, its importance was not to be underestimated.

“”Republic Airport is an important regional asset,” it stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “It provides significant transportation and economic benefits to both Suffolk and Nassau counties. The policy of the New York State Department of Transportation and the Republic Airport Commission shall be that Republic Airport continue to better serve Long Island.”

Whatever the future holds for it, it has a nine-decade foundation upon which to base it, as acknowledged by the plaque hung in the passenger terminal by the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society, “honor(ing) the tens of thousands of men and women who labored here in East Farmingdale, contributing significantly to aviation technology and aircraft production.” Those men and woman turned the wheels of the 11 aviation companies based there.

Sources

Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society website.

Neubeck, Ken, and Douglas, Leroy E. Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2016.

2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update, New York State Department of Transportation.



Source by Robert Waldvogel

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The Fall of Jerusalem 70 AD: Cannibal Lady Feeds on Baby’s Flesh

The Jewish historian, Yosef bin Mattiyahu, better known to history as Flavius Josephus (c. 37-95 A.D.), in his “Antiquities of the Jews,” quoted extensively by the Church historian Eusebius of Caesaria (c. 265-369) in his “Historica Ecclesiastica” relates, in considerable detail, the Roman assault on Jerusalem in 70 A.D. His account includes a bizarre incident of cannibalism during the siege of Jerusalem by Roman troops.

Josephus’ account is of great value to historians, having been an eyewitness. Josephus had fallen into Roman hands in the defense of Galilee (he had been a soldier and fought against the Romans in Galilee, a few years before the siege of Jerusalem commenced.) He was brought by the Romans to witness the siege.

The Roman campaign in Palestine had begun with an uprising by Jewish militants in the countryside in 66 A.D. Roman troops under the command of Vespasian had been involved in a campaign against the militants in the countryside for some years before the siege on Jerusalem began.The Jewish religious community at Qumran was dislodged in 68 A.D. The war soon converged on Jerusalem in the Passover season of 70 A.D. As the Roman troops, now under the command of Vespasian’s son Titus closed in on Jerusalem hundreds of thousands of Jews from the surrounding country sought refuge in Jerusalem within its walls.

Josephus estimated the number of Jews in Jerusalem at the Passover season 70 A.D. to have risen above 3 million. As the siege progressed famine set in. Armed bandits soon formed the habit of going from house to house in search of food, breaking down doors and confiscating food or anything of value for themselves. As the food scarcity intensified conditions got worse and order broke down completely in the besieged city as roving hordes of militants went totally berserk looting, killing and ransacking homes and confiscating all stores they could lay their hands on without caring about how their victims would survive.

According to Josephus, the mad-dog behavior of the armed bandits caused great distress to ordinary people who began dying in great numbers in their homes and on the streets of starvation. In the midst of this hell was a certain woman Mary daughter of Eleazar of Bathezor, of distinguished and wealthy family upbringing. She had fled with other refugees from the her country home into Jerusalem in the spring of 70 A.D. before the advance of Roman troops. Everyone knew that she was wealthy, so she became a favorite victim of looters and miscreants who soon stripped her of everything in her possession. In the process she resisted vehemently trying often to hide her purchases, for she had money to buy food with. But the looters kept a watch on her and would thoroughly ransack her home as soon as they believed she had acquired new stores, leaving nothing for her. She soon grew weary of resisting and acquiring food for the benefit of looters. In secret she killed her suckling baby and roasted the flesh. The sweet odor of the roasted flesh attracted attention and her tormentors were on her again demanding that she give up her roast. Mary, by this time, apparently out of her mind in great distress told them coolly that she had prepared a feast for them and reserved the best part for their enjoyment. She led them to where the half-eaten remains of her baby were covered up and revealed to them the horrible sight. Even men who had become hardened by the horrors of the war were shocked and seized with fright at the sight of the roasted infant half consumed by its mother.

“This is my own son,” she said to them. “The deed is mind. Eat, for I too have eaten. Be not more merciful than a woman, nor more compassionate than a mother. But if you are too pious and shrink from my sacrifice let the rest remain for me.” At these words, the men, terribly shaken, filed out of the room quietly. No one thought of depriving her of her latest store.

Meanwhile the war escalated and survivors soon began heaving masses of dead bodies over the city walls into the valley below. So terrible was the sight of the trenches filled with bloated, oozing bodies that even the Roman commander Titus cried out at the sight calling out to God to witness that it was not his doing. Those who tried to escaped from the beleaguered city were taken by the Roman soldiers, whipped and tortured and then crucified alive before the walls of the city. Crucifixion beams sprang up one after the other into a forest of thousands of crucified bodies. Attacking Roman soldiers came upon of a group of about 6 000 women and children who had sought refuge in a part of the outer temple ground. They simply set the cloister on fire and burned the 6 000 souls to death.

Josephus estimated the number of Jewish dead at about 1.1 million(“by famine and by sword”). The survivors over seventeen years of age were sent as prisoners to labor camps in Egypt and the children (about 90 000) were sold as slaves.



Source by John Thomas Didymus

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Detecting a Septic Tank Alarm False Alarm

If you have a septic system with a drain field then I recommend that you install a septic tank alarm if you do not have on installed already. The alarm should be located in a part of your home or property where you can easily see it flashing or hear it beeping.

Newly built homes usually come equipped with a septic tank alarm. If you hear the buzzing of an unknown alarm or the flashing of a mysterious red light, it may be your septic alarm. This alarm notifies you when your septic pump is not working properly.

When the alarm sounds it generally means that the septic effluent (waste water in the septic tank) is not being pumping to the drain field successfully. Call a septic system cleaning company immediately. This type of problem can quickly lead to the septic effluent backing up and finding its way into your basement. Do not get caught up on the cost of pumping your septic system; it is much cheaper to clean your system than it is to renovate your basement and get rid of the septic odor in your house.

There are times when a septic alarm will go off and the pump is still working fine. Being able to diagnose these situations can save you time and money. Use the follow list to help you determine why your septic alarm is sounding.

  • Have you been properly maintaining your septic tank? A well-maintained septic pump usually lasts between 10 and 15 years.
  • Could the power to the septic pump be disconnected? If there is no power, it will appear that the pump is malfunctioning when it is not.
  • Are the lines in your drain field plugged up? They can clog when your septic tank is over used and when the drain field is clogged it can cause water to back up into your home.
  • Could there have been a power outage in your area or a blown fuse that caused the septic pump to lose power?
  • Do you have your septic system pumped out on a regular basis (every 1 to 3 years)?

Ignoring the septic tank alarm can result in a smelly mess in your basement, so make sure that you never ignore the alarm. Many people do not have a septic tank alarm installed, so they do not have the luxury of an early warning system and may one day wake up to a basement full of waste water.

Installing the alarm and using it properly will save you time, money and labor.



Source by Byron Swaanson

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Mobsters in America – Stephanie St Clair – The Queen of the Harlem Numbers Rackets

She was chased out of the Harlem numbers rackets by Dutch Schultz, but when Schultz lay dying from a bullet wound, Stephanie St. Clair had the last laugh.

Stephanie St. Clair was born in 1886, in Marseilles, an island in the East Caribbean. At the age of 26 she immigrated to New York City and settled in Harlem. Almost immediately, she hooked up with the Forty Thieves, a white gang who were in existence since the 1850’s. There is no record of what St. Clair did for the next ten years, but it’s safe to say, considering her ties to the Forty Thieves, a notorious shake-down gang, what she did was anything but legal.

In 1922, St. Clair used $10,000 of her own money and started Harlem’s first numbers rackets. St. Clair was known for having a violent temper and often cursed her underlings out in several languages. When people questioned her about her heritage, she snapped that she was born in “European France,” and that she spoke flawless French, unlike the French-speaking rabble from the Caribbean. In Harlem they called her Madame St. Clair, but in the rest of the city, she was known as just plain “Queenie.”

In the mid 1920’s, known bootlegger and stone killer Dutch Schultz decided he wanted to take over all the policy rackets in Harlem. Schultz did not ask Queenie to back away too nicely, resulting in the deaths of dozens of Queenie’s numbers runners. Queenie enlisted the help of Bumpy Johnson, an ex-con with a hair-trigger temper, to take care of the Schultz situation. Johnson went downtown and visited Italian mob boss Lucky Luciano. He asked Luciano to talk some sense into Schultz. But there was not much Luciano could do, since at the time, he was one of Schultz’ partners. Luciano suggested that Queenie and Johnson throw in with Schultz, making them, in effect, a sub-division of Schultz’s numbers business. This did not sit too well with Queenie, and even though Johnson tried to convince her this was the smart move, she turned down Luciano’s offer.

Then out of nowhere, Queenie began having trouble with the police, whom she was paying off to look the other way. This was the work of Schultz, who through his connections with Tammany Hall, had several politicians in his back pocket, as well half the police force in New York City. While Schultz’ number runners worked the streets of Harlem with impunity, Queenie’s runners, when they were not being killed by Schultz’ men, were being arrested by the police.

Queenie decided to fight back with the power of the press. In December 1930, Queenie took several ads in Harlem newspapers, accusing the police of graft, shakedowns and corruption. That did not go over too well with the local fuzz, and they immediately arrested Queenie for illegal gambling.Queenie was convicted and sentenced to eight months hard labor on Welfare Island. Upon her release, she appeared before the Seabury Committee, which was investigating graft in the Bronx and Manhattan Magistrates Courts. Queenie testified that from 1923-1926, she had paid the police in Harlem $6000 to protect her runners from arrest, and that the police had taken her money and arrested her number runners anyway. Schultz must have had a good laugh over that one, since $6000 was less than he paid monthly to keep the cops happy in New York City.

Nothing came from her testimony before the Seabury Committee, so Queenie decided to plead her case to New York City Mayor Jimmy Walker, who was almost as crooked as Schultz. Queenie told Walker that Schultz was pressuring her to join his gang, or else. Walker, who was being investigated by the Seabury Committee himself, answered Queenie by quitting his job as Mayor and relocating to Europe for the next few years.

Queenie then pleaded with the other black policy number bankers in Harlem to join forces with her in a battle against Schultz. Knowing that Schultz had too much juice in the government, and too many shooters in his gang, they turned her down flat.

Bumpy Johnson soon found out that Schultz had put the word out on the streets that Queenie was to be shot on sight. Queenie then went into hiding, refusing to even go outside to see the light of day. On one occasion, Johnson had to hide Queenie in a coal bin, under a mound of coal, to save her from Schultz’ men. That was the final straw for Queenie. She sent word to Schultz that she would agree to his demands. Schultz sent word back to her that she could remain alive, as long as she gave Schultz a majority share in her numbers rackets. Queenie reluctantly agreed.

Schultz had his own run of bad luck, when he demanded that Luciano and his pals agree to the killing of Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, who was breathing down Schultz’s neck. Schultz’ proposition was turned down, and when he said he would kill Dewey himself, he was shot in the stomach in the bathroom of a New Jersey restaurant. Schultz lingered in a delirious state in a hospital for a few days before he died. As he was laying there mumbling inanities, a telegram arrived saying, “As ye sow, so shall you reap.”

The telegram was sent by the Queen of Harlem — Stephanie St. Clair.

Queenie eventually turned over her rackets to Bumpy Johnson. She faded into obscurity and died in her sleep in 1969.

In the 1997 movie “Hoodlum,” Lawrence Fishburne played Bumpy Johnson, Tim Roth played Dutch Schultz, Andy Garcia played Lucky Luciano and Cicely Tyson played Stephanie “Queenie” St. Clair.



Source by Joseph Bruno

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Why Real Estate Agents Need to Stay Motivated and on Top of Their Market

Why real estate agents need to stay motivated and on top of their market

Real estate is sales. No more and no less. You can go for months without selling anything and, naturally, be discouraged that you’ll ever succeed. Feast and famine is the order of the industry. So it is crucial that you break through this feeling to land your million dollar deal for the year. To land those deals you have to BELIEVE that you can do it – and that is why motivation is so important!

Motivation is also important for the following reasons:

a. Personality makes the sale!

Motivating yourself is essential because in real estate it is your personality, almost more than anything else, that counts. Reputation travels fast. Your success will hinge on word of mouth. Make a good impression and many more clients will want you to service them. That is why it is crucial that you feel on top of your field and that you remain confident in your abilities and skills, even when things don’t go as planned. Real estate can be hugely stressful – both for you and for your client. If a client leaves unhappy, whether it was due to your efforts or not, word-of-mouth spreads quickly and can affect your referral network and, ultimately, your bottom-line. Remain motivated!

b. Motivation gives you momentum!

Motivation pumps you up. Real estate is a feast and famine phenomenon. The famine part may be harder to sustain your energy for the feast. But the feast will come if you’re primed for it. That is why it is so important to retain your motivation so that you keep on enhancing your skills and so that you, somehow or other, manage to maintain your relish for your work. Motivated agents are more inclined to go the extra mile for their leads and clients, and the extra mile is always worth it.

c. You are self-employed

At the end of the day, you are running your own business – and that is precisely why motivation matters! As agent, you may work under a broker and the broker may provide you with marketing tools, education and mentoring, but, ultimately, you are responsible for your own results. It will be largely up to you to find the leads, manage them and close the deals. In short, you as agent are a business-person, an entrepreneur, self-employed and, like any self-employed individual, you will have to motivate yourself to keep your business going. In other words, the drive, determination, and self-discipline, must ultimately come from the agents themselves. And that is why it is so important for you to be self-motivated!

d. Motivation is one of the two most important skills!

Real estate hinges on knowledge. You’ll need to know your geographic locality inside out as well as going property prices and industry regulations. But, otherwise, the two most important factors are your personality and motivation. As regards personality, you’ll need to be gregarious, likeable, and you’ll need to possess excellent people skills. You’ll also need to have empathy in order to understand people’s situations and needs, so as to serve them best. Otherwise a positive attitude is crucial. Without that, you are at risk of defaulting on the first particularly since you’ll, likely, find the labor uphill work for you (especially in the beginning) and tend to be disheartened or frustrated. In that way, motivation underlies anything to do with real estate and is basically the corner-stone of your success.

Says Zurple, the real estate lead generation agency: Success in real estate relies on two main things – a great business strategy and a strong drive to succeed. If you’re missing one or the other, you will struggle. And if you have both – your’e on your way to success.

The bottom line is this…

Success in business, especially the real estate industry isn’t the 100 meter dash – it is a marathon. Maintaining a steady level of motion can be tricky, but it’s your main – if not your only – way to success.

Here are three tips that can help you:

  1. Recognize your progress: Take it slow and pat yourself on the back for those minor victories. Congratulate yourself for staying on task and for completing all those incremental steps that were so necessary for closing the deal.
  2. Find yourself a successful mentor: In the cutthroat industry of real estate finding someone excellent to help you can be laborious. Avoid brokers who are ready to hire you for fees. Take your time in finding someone who is a good match for you, who is honest and who has your best interests in mind so that he. or she, will give you the time and guidance that you need.
  3. Organize your time well: Set aside time to speak to clients, review industry reports and statistics, attend meetings, and see to all the other variables that go into the real estate schedule. Improve your skills as you go. Don’t avoid tasks that you don’t like. Be self-disciplined. Look to the future – don’t dwell on your failures; learn from them.

And one more thing…

Get and stay motivated!



Source by Yanni A Raz

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How to Become a Self-Taught Photographer?

You can look through a lot of web pages about photography, professional photographers sites, galleries and so on, but you will not find the exact information on how to become an excellent photographer at once.

It becomes clear: to seriously pursue a photography craft needs a lot of desire, patience, and knowledge. In short, you, need to work hard to achieve this goal – a goal of becoming a good photographer from scratch. A professional photographer is not necessarily a person with a god’s talent, but someone who has a vision, who has a creative mind and works hard to achieve self-perfection. If you say to yourself: “No, it’s not about me,” then do not even try to become a photographer. Otherwise, you will lose money and spend time badly. If you are not afraid of difficulties, even having no talent, do not lose your heart. The photographer is an occupation which is the same as many other creative professions. You can learn, and again, work hard.

However, there are some useful tips on “how to become a photographer,” which we’ve managed to find and organize. We hope it will help you in your endeavors a little, and may be the first step on the way to the photographer’s lifestyle.

How to become a professional photographer?

Of course, there’s an opportunity to get a higher education in photography. But to learn everything in photography fast is not possible. People say that to become a professional photographer takes at least from five to six years of steady and regular training and development. Market conditions are constantly changing; if a person is ill-versed in it, he has to wade through a lot of difficulties. The fact is that what there was five or six years ago may be no longer applicable today. This also applies to the practical work, and education. Paradoxically, today photographers are not prepared in any educational institution, they start from scratch with the camera and simply do photography depending on practice and taking some theory from I-net. A complete professional education involves the viability of the labor market, a good level of preparation of the photographer, both technical and artistic. So, relying on that, there are some ways of getting knowledge for the future photography career.

PHOTOGRAPHY SCHOOLS

Higher education in photography is available in many institutes of higher education, schools, training, etc. But now, according to professional photographers, this formation does not meet modern requirements. More and more people step aside from the formal education for independent courses or even free I-net lectures.

The problem is not only in the time lack or some global market tendencies, but also in the fact that the individual faculties of photographers, can be a sufficient basis. Also, the overall high demand for entrance exams can become a serious obstacle for the novice photographers. Studying online or in private with the craftsman turns out to be cheaper, more effective, and easy-going.

PRIVATE COURSES

Most private schools, although compared to the public ones having the better technical equipment, have a serious drawback: as a rule, they do not teach mechanic photography basics like chromatic, and chemistry, photo processes and photo composition, or lack separate lessons on photographic technique and lighting. Usually, it is a photographer with a lot of shooting experience, both analog and digital, who does not always practice some photography disciplines. Again, most currently known professional photographers did not receive education themselves. So, anyone who wants to become a professional photographer does so at their own risk. There’s no sure way to become a good photographer just like there’s no universal recipe for becoming an excellent product manager.

Main problem of a professional photographer

The main problem of a professional photographer is that money on taking a photo will always stand in the first place. It’s enough to have a look at a good photographic technique and materials price tag to make sure of it. There’s no work for free, even if you’re an artist. And to sell good, you should follow the market demands, but not your ambitions, want it or not.

Another problem is the need for an art education, which is the kinda paradox. Of course, every new client wants to know if you’re keen on what you do, and your glossy diploma usually serves as a solid proof, if not numerous honorable mentions of respected customers.

Another issue which are kinda bias and a perpetuated stereotype is the fact that the photographer can not be regarded as a professional simply because he earns his living by filming. Everyone can be such a “professional” and benefit from a mediocre level in photos. True, without having a good reputation, the photographer will not be able to succeed. Being professional means understanding what the customer needs, even the most insane and inadequate ones. After all, they’re just people who pay you.

All this is complicated and time was eating. Anyone who has education, a permanent job, and a family, will never agree to constant moving in pursue of career photography laurels because it’s simply incompatible. No worries. You can be a photographer in mind and have a small circle of friends. Or you can take casual photos as a well-paid hobby, and your little passion, without chasing Siberian Tigers or Lady Gaga for a sensational shoot for neither National Geographic nor Cosmopolitan, whatever.

The last problem is technological progress. There’s no way to escape it, sooner or later your camera model will grow old and your editing software – out of date. It seems that new technologies are pushing forward the human. Yes, they do, but it is very important to keep up with these technologies, keep abreast of the latest innovations. The need for continuous learning a new, tracking the development of the photographic industry will always stand in front of a professional in additional to the aforementioned issues.

For anyone who wants to become a photographer, we say: “Welcome to the world of photography.” You’ll always have to be confident, trying to find something amazing, in the right place and just in right time to make a brilliant shot.

Simple steps: how to become a self-taught photographer

The photographer is an artist. This is a creative person. There are thousand various ways of becoming great from various famous photographers like Helmut Newton or George Edward Hurrell. Here’re some tips which, however, will perfectly fit an ordinary modern person willing to become a good photographer.

1. Drink a bottle of champagne in the morning, after the breakfast – for courage, and to mark the beginning of a new life.

2. Take a TV cable and cut it off. You can throw your TV set through the window, as well. Now you’re ready.

3. Realize and accept your new hobby (or passion) as its is.

4. For the first time, completely exclude reading some non-photographic literature. Read it everywhere: in the kitchen, in the bathroom, bedroom, and other locations. Read literature about the photos and photo albums, successful photographers, online editing/proofing software, mobile photo processing tools, etc. After some time, you will have a grasp of photography theory as a result of reading. Any information hunger for books and periodicals will be good for you and make the learning process easy and fun.

5. Train your eye, dwell on imagination. Whatever you do, look for photographic subjects and angles. Do not be distracted by nonsense. Focus, watch at home, on the road, at work, at rest, having sex, walking the dog, always, in general. If your attention is scattered, and you forget about the photos, use reminders.

6. As soon as you see something worthy of capturing (object, still life, landscape, person, genre scene, interesting texture, and so forth.), take a camera and picture it.

7. After making shots always ask yourself: “Why?”. Your art should have reason and purpose, and the history. Close your eyes, open your mind and try to absorb the sacramental photography knowledge spilled everywhere in the environment. Urge for inspiration in ordinary things that surround you every day, even in routine.

Have more ideas? You’re welcome to share them! Good luck!



Source by Irene Rufferty

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Mobsters in America – The Murder of Joe Rosen Sat Louie Lepke Right Down Into the Electric Chair

Joe Rosen was a legitimate business man, who never broke the law in his life. But when he was killed in 1936, on the order of Louis “Lepke” Buchalter, it was the first link in the chain that sat Lepke right down into the electric chair.

Joe Rubin, from Brownsville in Brooklyn, had finally hit the jackpot. Through sweat and hard work, he had started a small trucking business, that catering to non-union, tailoring-contact customers in the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania area. These were solid accounts and they bought Rosen a partnership in the New York & New Jersey Truck Company. But Louie “Lepke” Buchalter, from the same neighborhood as Rosen in Brownsville in Brooklyn, had other ideas. Lepke was a founding partner in Brooklyn’s infamous “Murder Incorporated, but his pal and sometimes partner Max Rubin controlled the Amalgamated Clothing Worker’s Union. In 1932, Rubin and Lepke approached Rosen and demanded that he stop delivering to non-union tailor shops in Pennsylvania.

“But if I lose the Pennsylvania business, I lose everything,” Rosen told them. “I’ve been in the clothing business all my life and now I’m being pushed out of it.”

Which was exactly what Rubin and Lepke did. But as a consolation prize, the gave Rosen a job as a truck driver in Garfield Express, a trucking business that Lepke owned 50% interest in, with his partner Louis Cooper. Eight months later, Cooper fired Rosen and Rosen was out of work for 18 months. He used borrowed funds to open a small candy store in Brownsville, but Rosen was a loud and unhappy camper. Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey was a fierce investigator, concentrating on the labor rackets, and he began making noise about Lepke’s involvement with the Amalgamated Clothing Worker’s Union.

“This is bad,” Rubin told Lepke. “Joe (Rosen) is around complaining he’s got a family and he doesn’t have anything to eat. We got a desperate man on our hands.”

Lepke, in a display of sheer generosity, told Rubin to give Rosen a few bucks, but in return, before Dewey caught a whiff of what he was saying, Rosen had to split town immediately. Rubin met with Rosen in his candy store and said, “Here’s two hundred dollars. Lepke wants you to go away and cool down. You better do what he says.”

Rosen did as he was told, and he holed up with his son, who lived and worked as a coal miner in Reading, Pennsylvania. Less than a week later, Rosen’s wife contacted him and told him his mother was sick. Rosen was sick too; sick of Reading, Pennsylvania. So he hopped on a bus and hightailed it back to New York City. He was back working in his candy store the very next day. This did not please Lepke too much. Lepke usually insulated himself from any direct connection to the scores of murders he ordered. Instead he had a small group of lieutenants, including Rubin, whom he gave orders to, and these orders were passed down the line to the eventual killers. Albie Tannenbaum was one of his killers, but not one of his confidants. Unfortunately, Tannenbaum was in the next room when Lepke blew his top about Rosen.

“I’ve seen enough of this crap,” Lepke screamed at Rubin. “That (expletives) Rosen, he’s going around shooting his mouth off about seeing Dewey. He and nobody else is going any place and doing any talking. I’ll take care of him.”

On September 13, 1936, a band of Lepke’s killers, led by Harry “Pittsburgh Phil” Strauss, sat in ambush as Rosen opened his candy store at 7:30 am. In an extreme example of overkill, the shooters rushed into the store and emptied seventeen bullets into Rosen’s body; the last four pumped by Strauss after Rosen was already dead.

For the next four years, Murder Incorporated committed hundreds of murders, but not one of them could be traced back to Lepke. Dewey was on Lepke’s trail for slews of other crimes, so Lepke lammed it somewhere in New York City, which is is easiest place to hide, with eight million people milling about, minding their own business.

In 1940, at the urging of his partners Lucky Luciano and Meyer Lansky, Lepke tuned himself in to FBI Chief J. Edgar Hoover, thinking the fix was in and he merely had to do a few years in the can for his crimes. But he was double-crossed by Luciano and Lansky, and also by Albie Tannenbaum and Max Rubin, who had been pinched too, and were looking to make a deal. Both rats agreed on the witness stand that Lepke had ordered Rosen’s killing. After Tannenbaum quoted Lepke verbatim about taking care of Rosen, thereby confirming Rubin’s account, Lepke’s goose was cooked. On November 30, 1941, it took the jury a little over four hours to return a guilty verdict on Lepke for murder.

After several appeals were turned down, on March 4, 1944, Lepke was fried in the electric chair at Sing Sing Prison, and it was the murder of Joe Rosen, a poor nobody, who just wanted to live a decent, hard-working life in peace, that put him there.

To this day, Louis “Lepke” Buchalter is the only mob boss ever to be executed by the government.



Source by Joseph Bruno

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Teen Pregnancy – Pros and Cons of Adoption

A teenager thinking about adoption for her baby really does need to think about the pros and cons of adoption. Because she is young, she may have difficulty making such a hard decision. Usually, she is having to decide what to wear to school or what to take for her lunch. Parent a child? Release a child? Those are not every day decisions.

When I think about my daughters being teenagers and having children or I imagine that I am a teenager having a child, these are some pros and cons I would consider:

PROS:

I am still a child in many respects myself, and probably have no business being responsible for another human being!

I have a long life ahead of me to live and so much to do. How will I be able to accomplish what I need to if I am parenting?

My baby deserves a good chance at life. He or she needs a mom and a dad to teach and guide her. I can hardly take care of myself right now.

If someone else raises my child, I will know that they are being loved and are happy and having a wonderful life. Perhaps they will be the next President of the United States, or maybe they will develop the cure for cancer. Whose spouse will they be?

If I release my baby for adoption, they can have a wonderful life and I can continue to do what I need to do in life, knowing that they are happy and healthy.

I will have joy in the knowledge that I made someone’s dream to be a parent come true. I will be their angel.

CONS:

I won’t be the mommy to my baby.

I won’t see them every day, see them take their first steps, say their first words…

I risk being judged or unsupported by my family and friends.

I will go through a pregnancy, labor and delivery but will not have a baby to take home.

Maybe you can think of more pros and cons…make your own list or add to this one. It seems like the cons are more short term issues…the pros are lifelong positive results of a difficult decision, but one that leaves everyone better in the long haul. Whatever you decide, it won’t be easy…parenting is not easy; it’s hard work. Placing a baby is not easy either; it’s hard too. You have to make the best decision for you and your baby.



Source by Debbie Santora

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